How Solar Energy is converted into Electricity Using Solar Panels?

Solar energy has become a popular alternative energy source as a renewable energy source. It is the energy that comes as natural resource from the sun.

Solar-based projects or devices convert light energy of the sun into electricity that is used to operate the device. For converting process, photovoltaic cells are used that are available in different sizes and ratings based on the application used.

Solar energy is classified into two types based on the way in which solar energy is utilized

1. Active Solar Energy

2. Passive Solar Energy

Passive Solar Energy

The passive solar energy is used directly from the Sun for various applications without using any intermediate devices or converters. By using the solar energy passively, we can heat water, water in swimming pools and can even heat houses or buildings. The best example of passive solar energy is drying up clothes in bright daylight.

Applications of passive solar energy include the following:

Solar heating and cooling

Day lighting

Drying up cloths, food products and other materials

Active solar energy

Active solar energy reduces a building’s fossil fuel energy requirements for loads operation. An active solar energy source has two major applications. With this energy system, the solar energy from the sun is converted into electricity by using an intermediate circuit (Photo voltaic cells).

Solar panels absorb the energy of sun and transfer the electricity to the point of usage are placed on the roof of a building or house. A solar heating system can provide a high percentage of domestic energy requirements for heating purpose.

Applications of active solar energy include the following:

Active solar space heating

Active solar water heating

Active solar pool heating

Conversion of Solar Energy into Electricity Using Solar Panel

Solar Panel

The solar panels are made of solar cells composed of semiconductor materials. Solar panels convert solar energy into DC electricity usually of 12V, which is further utilized for the rest of the circuit. The number of cells required and their size depend on the load rating. An array of solar cells can produce maximum electricity if the solar panel is placed exactly at right angle to the sun rays.

Charge Controller

A charge controller is the heart of any solar-power system. The charge controller is used to maintain proper charging voltages of the batteries. The charge controller regulates voltage and current from the solar panel and charges the battery. It also prevents the battery from overcharging and undercharging conditions.


Current produced from the solar panels is stored in the battery and deliver this stored power to the corresponding loads. The battery rating and the number of batteries required depend on the load requirement.


An inverter converts the available battery’s DC voltage to the main AC voltage in order to operate the loads. Therefore, the inverter helps us to run home appliances, computers or other electronic devices. Inverters have the characteristics like high switching frequency, less harmonic content, high conversion efficiency and so on.For solar products visit Alphazee Systems.

Get the Medium app

A button that says 'Download on the App Store', and if clicked it will lead you to the iOS App store
A button that says 'Get it on, Google Play', and if clicked it will lead you to the Google Play store