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For a long while it has been Friday.

Friday for me has been Day of The Week and Day of Light and also, as it goes, Day of Relief. Generally I am inclined to change tastes and preferences with the winds but Friday has been the frontrunner for some time now. I was — admittedly briefly, overzealously — a Monday person. I am no longer.

There are words, and I cannot attribute them without, surely, misattributing them, so I will give you simply the words: Anticipation of the thing is greater than the thing itself. This, I believe, is why so many people will tell you their favourite day is Saturday (let my hair down!) or worse, Sunday (so relaxing!), but measure serotonin levels on any given day and Friday — I have no doubts — will reign queen. Friday is the place perfect, the moment on the landing, doused in the light at the end of the tunnel but still inside the tunnel, still protected from the discovery that the light will never give you what you really wanted (it is only light, after all). Friday is where your desire for the light and your belief that you are close to it collide. This intersection, this rarest of mergings: this is the purest pleasure. …

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There is a moment that I imagine every grown-up or growing-up lives through. It is the moment when, twenty-something and alone in your rented room, it occurs to you that you can no longer go home — go home, at least, as you used to. You have passed the literal point of no return, passed the years of semester breaks in your childhood bedroom, passed the dramatic seasons of quittings and crises and calls for help in your parents’ kitchen.

For some people it is a mental transition: at some point the tumult of twenty-something quietens; the seasons stabilise into years and jobs last longer than nine and a half months. Going home becomes only visiting, not to the past but to a new kind of life where your parents and you drink wine like adults of a shared category and review the things that came on the screen and think about what’s next. You are no longer a traveller, a conqueror of destinies. …

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I get so many people asking me about when to use the Latin abbreviation i.e. and when to use e.g. In fact, many of us are mistaken in believing that i.e. means for example, just like e.g.

I.e. means that’s to say

I.e. is the abbreviation for the Latin term id est, which means in other words or that’s to say. It helps to clarify or specify what you’re talking about, adding novel information to whittle down the possibilities and give a precise picture.

He had a fight with his publicist, i.e., his wife.

E.g. means for example

In contrast, e.g. is short for exempli gratia, which means, quite literally, for the sake of example. In today’s English, that means for example. We use e.g. to introduce an example or a list of examples, indicating that there are multiple possibilities or…

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The distinction between the relative pronouns that and which has many writers stumped. They have a nagging feeling that there are certain circumstances where one should be used in place of the other, but they can’t quite be sure when or where to use each.

Among most style guides and grammar authorities, it’s generally agreed that which should introduce nonrestrictive clauses, and that should precede restrictive clauses. What does that mean?

Restrictive and nonrestrictive clauses

A clause is a group of words that, grammatically, rank just below sentences. Think of them as mini-sentences, or sentence-building blocks.

A restrictive clause is one that changes the noun it modifies in a fundamental way; without it, the sentence would have quite a different meaning (or perhaps no meaning at all). …

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People often wonder whether there’s a difference between what and which, and whether one or the other should be used depending on the circumstances. There’s not a huge difference between what and which, and they’re often interchangeable.

What’s your favourite alcohol?

Which is your favourite alcohol?

What kind of alcohol do you prefer?

Which kind of alcohol do you prefer?

Which refers to a limited number of possibilities

If you’re referring to a very limited number of possibilities — particularly ones as part of a group that you and the person you are speaking to or writing to collectively understand (like their wardrobe or a brochure of colour swatches), then it’s best to use which.

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Usually I try to reassure my readers that whichever grammar or usage problem they’re grappling with, the answer isn’t as hard to understand as they imagine.

I’ll be honest: that’s not quite the case for past and passed.

These two homophones don’t just sound exactly the same: they’re also used all the time. While seasoned readers rarely have a problem with them, the majority of infrequent readers and writers have probably been stumped by past and passed at least once in their lives.

Let’s dive in, but be warned: it’s hard to distill these two homophones down to a simple usage rule. …

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Misplaced apostrophes are some of the most common errors in written English. Most of us know the basic rules, like using them for possession (the cat’s mat) and contractions (he isn’t going), but can only hazard a guess when things get more complicated. Here is the only list you’ll ever need of when and how to use apostrophes.

But first, why should you care?

There’s nothing more jarring to a person with even a slight command of grammar than a misplaced apostrophe. They show up everywhere — on shop signs, social media posts, text messages, formal documents.

Spelling is what most amateur writers get hung up on — they believe they can’t write because they can’t spell. But spelling (at least in the 21st century) isn’t the problem it used to be. …

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There are some words that make using apostrophes just plain confusing. Luckily, there aren’t too many of them, and if you take the time to learn about them now, they shouldn’t be a problem ever again. Most of them are contractions that sound like possessive determiners and vice versa. Problem is, contractions take apostrophes, and possessive determiners don’t. Let’s dive in!

It’s and its

If you’re indicating possession using the pronoun it, this is one case where you shouldn’t use an apostrophe. That’s because it is a pronoun, not a noun. It represents a noun — let’s use a dog as our noun in this example. Saying it to refer to a dog is equivalent to saying he to refer to someone called Simon. So when we say its in reference to something the dog owns, it’s the equivalent of saying his in reference to something Simon owns. To put that another way, its is not the same as Simon’s. …

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Phrases like one of Jane’s brothers or a friend of hers can cause apostrophe headaches. These phrases are called double possessives (or double genitives, oblique genitives or postgenitives if you want to get technical). They contain possessives (a noun with an apostrophe or a possessive pronoun or determiner), and an of phrase, which also indicates possession.

Double possessives change meaning

Although some people believe these double possessives are redundant (why say a friend of Sally’s when we could say a friend of Sally?), we use them all the time because they do change the meaning of a phrase — even if only slightly.

In Weeds in the Garden of Words, Kate Burridge explains that “To say you’re a friend of Greg’s means that Greg looks upon you as a friend. To say you’re a friend of Greg means that you look upon Greg as a friend. A subtle difference. It seems that the addition of -s to . . . Greg is a way of focusing attention on [this person] as having a more active role in the relationship being…

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Sometimes, demonstrating possession is not as simple as adding an apostrophe and an s to a noun. Take the problems of joint possession and separate possession: how do you show that two people own something together, or that they each own the same kind of thing? This article explains how and when to use apostrophes for shared and individual possession.

Using apostrophes for joint possession

If you have two or more nouns that share ownership of something, you should only add an apostrophe to the name that appears last.

I had a great time at Ella's and Scott’s party.I had a great time at Ella's and Scott party.



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