This post is a brief explanation of what happens after https://www.holbertonschool.com is typed into a browser and sent.
https:holbertonschool.com, (//www. is a subdomain and is not necessary in this case,) is whats known as a Uniform Resource Locator (url). The url starts with Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (https) and ends with the Domain Name holbertonschool.com. HTTPS is the the secure version of the standard web transfer protocol (HTTP), adding a layer of security to the data in transit through a Secure Socket Layer (SSL) or Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol connection. The address is translated to Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol…
Here is the recursive function.
int _pow_recursion(int x, int y)
if (y < 0)
if (y == 0)
return (_pow_recursion(x, y - 1) * x);
The following steps explain how the function executes. First, the ‘y’ variable is checked if it is less than 0, returning -1 if it is. Second, y is checked if it is equal to 0, returning 1 if it is. Last, the _pow_recursion function is called in the return statement where ‘y’ is decremented by 1 and the value the function returns is multiplied by…
The Internet of Things or IoT, is all about embedded systems interconnecting. An embedded system is a combination of computer software and hardware with a dedicated function that is either fixed or programable within a larger mechanical or electrical system, often with real time computing constraints. It is embedded as part of a complete device often including hardware and mechanical parts. Embedded systems control many devices in common use today. Ninety-eight percent of all microprocessors that are manufactured components of embedded systems. …
A Python object is either mutable, meaning capable of being changed after it is created or immutable, unchangeable after creation. Since Python is an Object Oriented Programming language, It is important to understand which object types can truly be changed or are just faux changed. To help understand what an object is and if it truly can change, I will use the Python builtin functions type() and id() as well as the comparison operators ‘is’ and ‘==’.
For the sake of simplicity, libraries are understood as a collection of functions available to the users of programming languages. All programming languages have libraries of common useful functions that are accessed by including them in the program file. In the C programming language add #include <lib.h> (lib.h, being a fictional library,) where as in Python add -import library or -from library import function.
If you are not familiar with low-level programming languages, you might not be aware that there are two types of libraries a writer of functions can create to house your functions. The first and least efficient…
In Unix and Unix -like operating systems, ls is a command to list the files in the current directory. If you add -l (flag) the files are listed in the long format, displaying Unix file types, permissions, number of hard links, owner, group, size, last-modified date and filename. The example below shows the files listed in a directory called bin that is located in the root directory. The permissions part can be broken down to 4 parts. First part in this example is “-” which specifies that this is a regular file. Other common uses are:
Libraries are collections of precompiled functions and variables that have been written to be reused in other programs. If several programs were being created to be combined as one they would likely use common functions. These common functions could be built as a library that each program could link as a static library (lib.a). The linking of the library comes in the last operation the compiler performs simple known as the linker.
In order to link a library, you will need to create it first. Lets say you have created several C functions each called file_1.c file_2.c and file_3.c. …
The original GNU C Compiler (GCC) is developed by Richard Stallman, the founder of the GNU Project. Richard Stallman founded the GNU project in 1984 to create a complete Unix-like operating system as free software, to promote freedom and cooperation among computer users and programmers.
GCC supports many languages such as C (
gcc), C++ (
g++), Objective-C, Objective-C++, Java (
gcj), Fortran (
gfortran), Ada (
gnat), Go (
gccgo), OpenMP, Cilk Plus, and OpenAcc. GCC is also a key component of so-called “GNU Toolchain”, for developing applications and writing operating systems. The GNU Toolchain includes:
The diagram above show the relationship of hard and soft links. An inode is a data structure on a filesystem on Linux and other Unix-like operating systems that stores all the information about a file except its name and its actual data.
A file in the file system is basically a link to an inode.
A hard link then just creates another file with a link to the same underlying inode.
When you delete a file it removes one link to the underlying inode. The inode is only deleted (or deletable/over-writable) when all links to the inode have been deleted.
ls is one of the most commonly used commands in linux.
The description of the ls command from the manual simple states — List information about the FILEs (the current directory by default). Sort entries alphabetically. Using this command is as simple as typing ls after the $ in the linux shell.
Now about ls *.c. Lets say you want to list the contents of a large directory filled with lots of different types of files and you want to list only the files that end in .c. Thats where using ls.c comes in handy.