Basic Hindi Grammar Lessons

To master any language one needs to understand the basics first and when we talk about speaking a language that basic is nothing else but grammar. Do you remember a teacher like this who taught you grammar in school?


If your answer is yes, and you are scared of grammar then you don’t need to worry. This is the easiest lesson ever. You only need to learn a few words and understand the basics of tenses. Hopefully, once you are through this article, you will be able to make your own little sentences. Let’s begin.


Here is list of pronouns along with their English equivalent:

I — — — मैं/main

You — — —-तुम/ tum

We — — — — हम/ hum

Thou — — — आप/ aap

‘Thou’ is currently not in use in English, but Hindi formal talk involves use of this pronoun.

This — — — यह/ yeh

That — — — वह/ vah

These — — — -ये/ ye

Those — — — - वे/ ve

Mine — — — - मेरा/ mera

Your — — — — तुम्हारा/ tumhara

His/ Her/ its — — — — — इसका / iska

Their — — — — — इनका/ inka

Adjectives: Some commonly used adjectives are listed below:

Big — — — -बड़ा/ bada

Small — — — - छोटा/ chhota

Good — — — अच्छा/ achha

Bad — — — — बुरा/ bura

Clean — — — -साफ़/ saaf

Dirty — — —गंदा/ ganda

Easy — — — -आसान/ asaan

Difficult — — -कठिन/ kathin

Beautiful — — — सुन्दर/ sundar

Tenses: Without knowing the correct usage of tenses it is very difficult to speak. In Hindi using tenses is not a difficult task. Here all the examples are given for the first person. Later on we will study different verb usage for second and third person.

Simple Present tense:

I walk.

Main chlta hoon.

मैं चलता हूँ.

Present continuous tense:

I am walking

Main chl rha hoon.

मैं चल रहा हूँ.

The verb here is ‘chl’ ‘चल’ . If you add ‘ta’ ‘ता’ in the verb then it is present tense and if you add ‘rha’ ‘रहा’ then it becomes present continuous. Let’s see another example.

Simple Present tense:

I eat.

Main khata hoon.

मैं खाता हूँ.

Present continuous tense:

I am eating.

Main kha rha hoon.

मैं खा रहा हूँ.

You can see the addition of ‘ta’ ‘ता ’ in the verb ‘kha’ ‘खा’ and similarly notice the use of ‘rha’ ‘रहा ’ in continuous tense.

Simple Past Tense:

I read the book.

Maine kitaab pdhi.

मैंने किताब पढ़ी.

Past continuous tense:

I was reading the book.

Main kitab padh rha tha.

मैं किताब पढ़ रहा था.

Here again you can see, the use of ‘rha’ ‘रहा’ in the continuous tense. ‘Tha’ ‘था’ is the word which is always used in past continuous tense.

Simple future tense:

I will read the book.

Main kitaab padhunga.

मैं किताब पढूंगा.

Past continuous tense:

I will be reading the book.

Main kitaab pdh rha hounga.

मैं किताब पढ़ रहा होऊंगा.

The word ‘rha’ ‘रहा’ remains constant in continuous tense. The verb is padh ‘पढ़’. In simple tense ‘unga’ ‘उंगा’ is added to the verb whereas in continuous tense ‘hounga’ ‘होऊंगा’ is used along with the verb.


This is the most basic grammar lesson, where you have been introduced to few simple points, but once you learn this you won’t see Gandalf in your dream anymore.

Grammar is a very vast topic. We will cover other parts later. Till then keep practicing.