Hi Justin — did you consider using Sysdig? Sysdig is designed to troubleshoot containers. You’d be able to collect resource, process, argument, network, file, payload data and more with full container context. They also have tracers that would allow you to instrument your code to track spans of execution.
the open source project is at http://www.sysdig.org which also includes the tracers functionality. There is a commercial product built on that, at https://www.sysdig.com