data that might fuel interesting empirical research that can inform the debates about the ethics of AI is proprietary information controlled by commercial entities — particularly large technology companies with own research teams — and often not easily accessible to academic researchers
Autonomous Systems — Is it time for empirical research?
Urs Gasser

Typically, data fueling AI systems are generated by corporations and governments on consumers and citizens. However, when the subject of data is not necessarily individuals but governments and companies themselves, we call it civic data, which could flourish new uses of AI systems. Read more here: “Civic Data Initiatives”