tech enthusiast ~ programmer ~ avid writer ~ always curious; rarely express it ~ freshman @ American High ~ “Make it work, make it right, make it fast.”

# The Collatz Conjecture: Impossible?

## My analysis and theoretical conclusion

Let’s take a brief look at what this puzzling Collatz Conjecture is.

This conjecture involves a sequence of numbers with 2 simple rules attached to them:

x = number

If the number is even, divide the number by 2, or (x/2)

If the number is odd, multiply the number by 3 and add 1, or (3x +1)

The idea is that no matter what number you start with, using these rules you will always end up at 1. …

# My First Data Science Research Paper

## As a freshman in high school

This was a paper I recently submitted for part of a research program I applied for and got into. Over the course of around 4 months, we will be educating ourselves with the concepts of data science and machine learning. My first project, in the field of data science, was to analyze a data set, describe it, and finally evaluate it.

The data represents 355 exoplanets in the universe, each one having its own attributes. The goal of the data is to find exoplanets that could potentially support life as we know it, but our task was not to make conclusions. …

# Creating a Tag Cloud Using Python Graphics

## Text data visualization made easy

Yet again, a Python Turtle graphics project has been circling in my mind for some time now.

The concept is called a tag cloud, also known as a word cloud. It’s a novelty visual representation of text data, typically used to depict keyword metadata on websites or to visualize free form text. Tags are usually single words, and the importance of each tag is shown with font size or color.

Let’s look at an example with a famous excerpt from Nicholson Baker’s The Everlasting Story of Nory.

“Nory was a Catholic because her mother was a Catholic, and Nory’s mother was a Catholic because her father was a Catholic, and her father was a Catholic because his mother was a Catholic, or had been.” …

# Plant vs. Animal Cells

## An in-depth compare and contrast

Did you ever actually take a closer look at cells? They are amazing microscopic machines that live to carry out various complex functions. They have similar and different ways to create and support life. Plant and animal cells, as intriguing as they are, can definitely be similar and unique in many interesting ways because of their detailed structures, functions, and parts.

Plant and animal cells surprisingly resemble one another with their overall structure for survival. Most importantly, they’re both Eukaryotic cells, a very complex cell type that was the second type of cell to ever live. …

# Crises, Their Significance, and Their Narratives

## Shedding light onto some of the most devastating crises in history

Have you ever wrapped your head around the disasters and violence going on around the world? We feel pity when we see such horrific circumstances, but when a victim’s story is known to us, it gives us the information to comprehend the crisis. The Holocaust, the Syrian Civil War, and the Mozambican Civil War all provide riveting instances of world crises. With this in mind, it is crucial to perceive how individuals’ personal stories or narratives shed light on the crises and how these disasters treated victims.

To start, it is crucial to observe the particulars of the largest genocide in history, the infamous Holocaust that lasted from 1933 to 1945. This crisis occurred mainly because of religious persecution. Nazi Germany’s supreme dictator, Adolf Hitler, persecuted against Jewish people since they didn’t follow the official Nazi Germanic religion of Christianity. As punishment, six-million Jews were killed. Zooming in on the crisis, a single figure stood out from the rest of the victims. Anne Frank, a teen Jewish girl who lived and died during the Holocaust, wrote down her experiences in a diary. A Diary of a Young Girl is a narrative published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt in 2017, originally written by Anne Frank, and based on the events in her diary in the story, Anne fled to Amsterdam from Germany with her family. They ultimately went into hiding. This narrative gives us a first-person perspective of the worst mass genocide of all time so that we can comprehend what each Jewish individual who went in hiding felt at any given moment. It also shows their inevitable innocence, aptitudes, and struggles. Hence, the narrative truly elucidates the complex factors of the Holocaust, shedding a great deal of light on the crisis. …

# Creating a Cinema Simulator Using Python

## A real-life, beginner-friendly Python program to have fun with

This is a perfect example of the combination of logic and loops in Python to create an incredibly powerful program. I will go through everything step by step so you can experience the beauty of this program with me. If you’re new to Python, this is a perfect program to open the door for you. It is meant for absolute beginners.

What is the program about? This program asks a user what movie they want to watch, and decides if they are ready to enjoy the movie by its availability, the user’s age, and the number of tickets left.

Definitions of any Python vocabulary will be listed at the bottom.

# 4 Fantastic Beginner Python Programming Challenges to Really Test Your Knowledge

Programming is not all about memorizing syntax and knowing every single function every made at the top of your head. It’s about knowing how to apply a strong base of fundamental knowledge to intricate, complex, logic-based, situations.

Before you get to building apps and advanced software like that, you need to master mind-bending and thought-provoking logic. Logical programs that, after reading them, send you deep in thought and analysis.

The following programs will, for majority of you, do just that. They’ll make you think like you’ve never thought before.

They’re not arduous, but they’re not straightforward or simple either.

Since the purpose of this article is for the reader to try solving these programs themselves, I won’t be giving an in-depth explanation of each solution. Just the solution code at the very end. And remember, a single problem can have many solutions. Mine can look completely different from yours, but in the end, it’s the output that matters. However, it won’t help if you code carelessly. For example, copy and pasting a huge chunk of code whereas a simple for loop can do the job. …

# Creating a Tag Cloud Using Python

Yet again, a Python Turtle graphics project has been circling around in my mind for some time now.

The concept is called a tag cloud, also known as a word cloud. It’s a novelty visual representation of text data, typically used to depict keyword metadata on websites, or to visualize free form text. Tags are usually single words, and the importance of each tag is shown with font size or color.

Lets look at an example with a famous excerpt from Nicholson Baker’s The Everlasting Story of Nory.

“Nory was a Catholic because her mother was a Catholic, and Nory’s mother was a Catholic because her father was a Catholic, and her father was a Catholic because his mother was a Catholic, or had been.”

# Creating a Tag Cloud Using Python

Yet again, a Python Turtle graphics project has been circling around in my mind for some time now.

The concept is called a tag cloud, also known as a word cloud. It’s a novelty visual representation of text data, typically used to depict keyword metadata on websites, or to visualize free form text. Tags are usually single words, and the importance of each tag is shown with font size or color.

Lets look at an example with a famous excerpt from Nicholson Baker’s The Everlasting Story of Nory.

“Nory was a Catholic because her mother was a Catholic, and Nory’s mother was a Catholic because her father was a Catholic, and her father was a Catholic because his mother was a Catholic, or had been.” …