Greek Literature: Weekly Update #11

Class Notes: 4/6/17 8:10 — 9:30AM in Locke Hall

We began class by taking our usual quiz. The answers to the quiz questions were (1) Eurybiades, (2) 180 ships by Athenians, (3) Sacred arms brought outside the temple, bolts from heaven and two chunks of clif broke off from Parnassus upon them w/ a loud din, shout and a war cry, two warriors of more than human stature, (4) Ionians, (5) He sends a defector to Xerxes telling them about the Greeks, (6) Isthmus, (7) Artemisia, (8) King’s couriers, (9) Hermotimus, and (10) Alexander. We spent a long time discussing the figure of Artemisia and other women in Herodotus. In three of the previous books Hds has concluded them by talking about a prominent women. Below are some examples of prominent women:

  • Book 1 — Tomyris, in story because she’s a ruler of Massagetae in far east of Persian empire, Example of Cyrus’ imperial reach, she cuts C’s head off in bag of blood, her son had killed himself), can be seen as an agent of the gods, agent of payback for Cyrus who had grown too big (any title mortal begins to rival gods in dominion the gods will find mechanisms on earth to hold you in check)
  • Book 4 — Pheretime, mother of the king of Cyrene, Battus. Battus and Barchaeans at war, Pheretime implaled all around he wallls and had women’s breasts cut off, died by mass of worms infecting her body

□ Violent vengeance — called by Hds

  • Book 7 — Gorgo, deciphers the wax tablet trick
  • Book 8 — Artemisia, fights, great advisor, queen of Halicarnassus (encourages Xerxes to not go to sea battle, sec 68), sec 87, rammed ship (Greeks saw her ramming Calyndus and assume she’s on their side, Xerxes observes her under assumption of ramming a Greeks ship, bit of a trickster figure)

Professor Sandridge asked us what words we associate with the women of Herodotus and some of these adjectives were: bold, cunning, intelligent, clever, devious, and savage. He also posed an interesting question — Did they possess these traits like men do or is it different? Some people asserted that the females are more complex (excepting Themistocles). One of my classmates said that men hash it out physically but most women don’t have build to handle physical challenge. Another said that women were more or less evil and that strong women more notable not necessarily worse.

Next we focused on where would a submissive woman find her place in Herodotus. We noted that a lot of these powerful women came from royalty. Examples of non — royalty include: Phya (women’s dressed as Athena,), submissive, dressed up and processed and the mother of Cleobus and Biton, men who carried mom to temple, went to sleep in temple and never woke up. Then we talked more about Cyrus who was raised by Cyno. Cyrus as a baby is handed over to Harpagus who gives him to a shepherd and Cyno, who had delivered a still-born child. It’s interesting that the Greek word for dog is similar to Cyno. This led to the story about Cyrus being raised by a dog. Then we related this to figures I had previously learned about in my Latin classes in high school: Romulus and Remus. We also talked about how women in Hds behave in ways that are striking since they’re unexpected. Next we talked about Pericles’ funeral oration where he basically says the best women can do is complete anonymity and that the only way that you would recognize a woman is if she produced an amazing men known as son of _____. In Herodotus, a lot of men are constantly trying to avoid being called women.

Next we had a reflection period on the discussion about life’s five great narratives:

  • Social relationships — friendship, romance (love)
  • Career/public identity
  • Spiritual/intellectual enlightenment
  • Partnership — business/marriage
  • Leadership

We focused on what does Herodotus or other authors say to help us think about these? We took each narrative one by one:

  • SR — A big theme is “How to know someone is really your friend or really loves you”; tension between leadership and SR story

There is very little romance in Herodotus. We talked about Candaules who was enamored with his wife but still messes this up through having Gyges view her naked body. We also touched on the Penelope — Odysseus story. We also discussed the fact that it is common for the president to have family, which projects normalcy.

  • C- We focused on what are the best careers in Herodotus.Some answers were oracle since you get gifts, bribes, tell future, exciting; advisor — being an oracle could save your life OR kill you, king might disagree. We also talked about who would be considered oracles today. — John said Kendrick Lamar and musicians in general could be considered as such.
  • S/I.E. — A lot of people in Herodotus tried to establish good relationships with the gods.
  • P- Partnership in Herodotus often takes the form of alliances. These alliances have to figure out will they be equal and if not, who will be dominant.
  • L- We talked about how in Book 8 Athens had to take back step because security of Greece is more important. One person said that leadership is not always a position but a posture.

Lastly we touched on the notion of Patriotism and what does it truly mean to love one’s country. Some believe Athenians are loved by Hds too much.

Class Notes 4/11/17 8:10 — 9:30 in Locke Hall

We talked about the fact that Herodotus, in its entirety, runs 664 pages and how if it had been 666 pages then it would be diabolical. Also, next week will be the 121st anniversary of Boston Marathon, which is 26.2 miles distance. It is a point to point marathon in which tail wind gives an unfair advantage. I thought it was interesting that our professor said that these races are dramatic since you can see if someone’s on pace or did they decide to sprint at the right time or will someone sprint past them at the last moment. He also said now that we are finishing up Herodotus we should think about questions you have about Greek literature for next class and we’ll pick readings based on questions we have.

We then moved onto a conversation about medizing. No one lets Thebas live down the fact they medized. Hippias was the figure that had medized and wanted to be put back in power in Athens. Our professor brought up the fact that there were a lot of wealthy elites who could be bribed to support Persians in each city state. Our class also focused on whether the stoning could be considered reckless or understandable? Would the gods be angry? One of my classmates brought up the fact that Tomyris’ vengeance seemed to be okay with the gods but Pheretime seemingly went too far with the impaling.

“There are no greek gods” — Prof. Sandridge

The above quote confused me at first since we had spent quite a few classes discussing the impact of Greek gods on the characters of Herodotus. Our professor also said that it all boils down to what you are looking for as a storyteller. If you buy into tisis (payback), you can always find some example of it if you research it.

We also referred back to the scene where Aristagoras tries to go and bribe Cleomenes (but Gorgo urges him to go away before being corrupted and he does). Aristagoras makes the same arguments to group of people and Hds says it’s easier to persuade a group of people rather than one person. Then we talked about how the Spartans are very wish-washy and are fortifying the isthmus between Peloponnesians and mainland Greece since they think this is the place where the battle will take place.

In relation to section 16 of Book 9 we talked about how elites tend to mingle with one another even if on opposite sides of the spectrum. For example, Ivanka Trump and Justin Trudeau were seen together at a Broadway show recently. Our professor said that he found this scene similar to when Xerxes goes to Troy, draws up all Persian army, and starts weeping. Xerxes weeps because he knows that all of these men will die (in a 100 years, none of these men will be alive).

We moved on to a profound quote — “To know much and control nothing” and the example of Cassandra, the daughter of Priam, the Trojan king. Apollo had made advances that she rebuffed and he spit in her mouth, giving her prophetic abilities (as a curse). Cassandra foresaw the fall of Troy and tried to warn them but they didn’t listen. She was taken as a concubine of Agamemnon who brings her to Mycenae and she foresees his death and her own and she is killed by Climenestra.

Next we focused on some sober moments of Herodotus. One example is when Cyrus defeats Croesus, Croesus utters Solon, and Cyrus has moment of sobriety where he realizes Croesus was powerful like him and now is on a pyre. This demonstrates the limited control we over life’s circumstances. Then we moved on to epic themes in Herodotus. Some people read Herodotus and say he gives you a picture of how Greeks view barbarians. We talked about the tug of war for Patroclus’ body in the Iliad (since it’s dear to comrades and valuable since they could use it for ransom or to be mistreated as a form of catharsis). We also read section 82 — “Persians have come to deprive us of our poverty (makes fun of the type of meals the different people had)”. Our professor introduced us to the book “Orientalism ” by Edward Said. This led us to a discussion of how civility is associated with emotional restraint, modesty in dress, sexual modesty, and obedience to the law. Inquiry, free thought, and free speech are highly linked with the west. We learned that Herodotus is getting at the point that the notion of civility fluctuates through time. Battle of Platea occurred 479 BCE and HDS lived a good 50 years after this. Then our professor read the Wikipedia of Pausanias. We talked about a familiar phrase, Pathe mathon — suffering teaches — and it’s opposite that would be Winning deludes since winning messes w/ your wits. For example, Cyrus had won so many battles he came to regard himself as more than human.

Slack 4/10/17 4:00 — 5:30 in my dorm for roughly half of it and then some in the School of Business when I wasn’t tutoring anyone

My response focused on prompt one, which was centered around leadership and the leaders of Herodotus compared to modern leaders.

Out of all of the leaders and powerful figures presented in Book 8, I felt that I resembled Queen Artemisia of Halicarnassus. The obvious reason being that she is one of the few women in Herodotus who is described in detail. In Book 8, Queen Artemisia offers advice to Mardonius intended for Xerxes. When Mardonius comes around to all of the leaders asking them whether Xerxes should fight the sea battle or not, Queen Artemisia responds by saying that “And so I say to you: spare your ships and do not fight this sea battle. For these men, your adversaries, are, at sea, as much better than yours as men are than women. Why must you put all at risk in sea fights?” (8.68). After Queen Artemisia states this, the crowd is split into two distinct groups — those who regret Artemisia’s words since they care for her and those who are delighted at them because they wish for her demise. King Xerxes doesn’t punish Artemisia and is instead “very pleased with Artemisia’s opinion” (8.69). This particular scene resonates with me because I feel that I most often make the conscious choice to tell people the truth during my leadership positions. If I notice bad habits in my mentee that I am helping prepare for college, then I will address it head on even if it requires them being mad at me for calling them out.
One character who has a completely different leadership style than me would be Themistocles. At the beginning of Book 8, Themistocles is bribed with thirty talents by the Euboeans to get the Greek fleet to remain and fight on the Euboean side (8.4). To me, a leader is supposed to stop corruption instead of being drawn into it. Throughout Herodotus, I feel that corruption is seen a lot in leaders such as Darius who gets his start through trickery. Darius successfully conspires to win the kingship by getting his man, Oebares, to get his horse to mate with a mare at the same spot that all the men are coming to tomorrow. This leads to Darius’ horse “plunging forward and neighing” first, which gets him the kingship (3.86). I think that a common theme that a lot of leaders in Herodotus share is a willingness to succeed by any means necessary, especially through violence and trickery. Even Queen Artemisia, who I liked for her ability to stand her ground amongst men, engages in violence when she is pursued by an Attic ship and rams a friendly Calyndian ship (8.87).
In comparison to modern heroes, ancient leaders in Herodotus are overtly power-thirsty and ruthless. Recently, I was talking about Chaka Fattah, a former US representative for Philadelphia, a person who I have previously met and viewed as someone who worked for good and maintained integrity. However, in 2016, he received 10 years in prison for fraud and other charges, which has diminished the legacy of his good works. This parallels to the story of Themistocles who also engages in bag practices for the sake of financial gain. My thinking on the subject of money and power and those in pursuit of it got me thinking about a quote from House of Cards: “Such a waste of talent. He chose money over power — in this town, a mistake nearly everyone makes. Money is the McMansion in Sarasota that starts falling apart after 10 years. Power is the old stone building that stands for centuries. This quote spoke to me and made me reflect on the type of leader I want to be — the kind that achieves power (not for fame, glory, wealth) but the kind that builds a legacy of integrity and service for marginalized members of society.

Studying Book 9 of Herodotus’ Histories: 4/10/17 8:00 — 9:40 PM, 4/11/17 4:00 — 6:50PM, 4/12/17 5:00 — 8:17PM, 9:00 — 9:45 in my dorm room

During my study sessions, I read Herodotus Book 9, tried to outline as much as I could since that seems to help me remember specifics better, and and used some online resources to help me refresh my memory. These resources include:


  • Alexander comes back to Mardonius and tells him what the Athenians said. Mardonius eagerly leads his army out from Thessaly to go against the Athenians. He drafts every man he comes across
  • When Mardonius’ army reaches Boeotia, the Thebans try to hold the army and Mardonius there since they assert that there is no better place for Mardonius to make his encampment. The Thebans urge him to send money to all the leading men in the cities, which will split them apart. This way he would be able to conquer Greece w/out fight (since conquering them w/out battle is difficult)
  • Mardonius does not heed their advice since he had a terrible longing in his heart to take Athens a second time. Mardonius’ reasons include: (1) arrogant pride and (2) desire to prove himself to the king. Note: just 10 months in between Xerxes’ capture of Athens and Mardonius’ capture. When Mardonius comes to Attica, he finds no Athenians and takes an empty city w/ no men there. Most are in Salamis with the fleet
  • When Mardonius is in Athens, he sends Murychides, a Hellespontian, to Salamis with the same offer that the Macedonian Alexander had given to the Athenians. Mardonius knew that the Athenians had no friendly sentiments towards him BUT he still thought that they might lose their resolve and see that they were captive to his spear
  • Murychides goes before the Council. One of the councilors named Lycidas suggests that it’s best that they submit the proposition to the people. Herodotus is unsure whether Lycidas has suggested this because he has been bribed w/money or if this is his personal conviction. The Athenians hear this, surround Lycidas, and stone Lycidas to death but they let Murychides leave unscathed. There is a tumult in Salamis about Lycidas. Some Athenian women hear about Lycidas and go to his house where they stone Lycidas’ wife and children to death
  • Description of how the Athenians crossed over into Salamis — Athenians were waiting in Attica for help from the Peloponnesian army but the Peloponnesians were taking a long time and being very slow. The Athenians take all of their goods and go away to Salamis. They also send messengers to Sparta for the purpose of (1) condemning the Spartans for standing by and letting the enemy invade and showing their anger AND (2) reminding them of the offers made by Persia if the Athenians changed sides (Basically — if you don’t help us, we’ll find a way out of this)
  • The Peloponnesians at this point are having a festival called the Hyacinthia
  • The messengers from Athenians go to Peloponnese to relay all this — you should help us, wall across isthmus is finished, we could have became allies w/ Persians and got more land but we would never betray Greece, you made a deal w/ us to go into Boeotia to meet Persians there but you broke your word, Thriasian Plain is now best place to fight after losing Boeotia, please send an army to meet the enemy in Attica
  • Ephors postpone decision until the next day; postponing goes on for 10 days. During this time the Peloponnesians were building the isthmus fortifications and were almost done. (Hds isn’t sure why they urged the Athenians not to medize when Alexander came but now don’t really care except for the fact that the Peloponnesians are almost finished with the isthmus and feel that they don’t need the Athenians)
  • The day before the supposed last meeting, a man from Tegea called Chileus, who was the most influential of foreigners among the Spartans, learned about what the Athenians had said. Chileus says that the Spartans can draw the walls if the Athenians decide to become allies of the barbarians but there will still be gates open to the Persians into the Peloponnese. Basically, help the Athenians before they change their minds
  • Ephors, right away, send 5 thousand spartiates with seven helots assigned to each one. Pausanias, son of Cleombrotus, is entrusted with leading them out for the expedition. The leadership technically belonged to Pleistarchus, son of Leonidas, but Pleistarchus was still a child at the time and Pausanias was his guardian and cousin. Cleombrotus, father of Pausanias, was no longer alive. Cleombrotus had brought the army out of the isthmus (he was sacrificing for victory when an eclipse happened) and he died
  • Pausanias marched out of Sparta and the messengers (who didn’t know) came before the ephors condemning them for their betrayal and telling them that they’ll be allies of the king. The ephors tell the messengers that the Spartans are in Orestheum marching against the enemy.
  • Argives learn that Pausanias and his expedition are setting out to fight. The Argives pick the best day-runner (aka long-distance runners) to send as herald to Attica. The herald informs Mardonius that the youth of Sparta has set out and the Argives (who had promised to prevent Sparta from entering the war) unable to hold them back and then the herald returns home.
  • Having heard the bad news about the Spartans, Mardonius no longer wants to remain in Attica. Prior to this, he hadn’t devastated the land since he thought that he could come to terms with the Athenians. After failing to persuade him and hearing about the Spartans march towards fighting, he withdraws before Pausanias and his troops reach the isthmus and burns Athens (including temples, houses, etc)
  • Mardonius withdrew because Attica is not a Calvary Country. If he engaged and lost in Attica, then he would have no way of retreating except for a “narrow defile”. Mardonius plans to retire to Thrbes and fight near a friendly city suitable for Calvary action
  • Mardonius is on his way when he is notified that the Spartans are in Megara. He turns around and goes to Megara to try to destroy these first. His “cavalry advances and overruns the country about Megara).
  • Next Mardonius receives a message that the Greeks are at the isthmus and he marches back. In Theban country (Thebes = Allies), Mardonius ravages Thebes’ lands by cutting down their trees to make a strong army fortress if needed. Each side of the fortress was at most 10 stages long.
  • While the barbarians were working on this, Attaginus, a Theban, was preparing an elaborate banquet (held in Thebes) to which he invited Mardonius and 50 of the most distinguished Persians. Hds recalls a story he heard from Thersander of Orchomenus. Thersander was one of the chief men invited to the feast. At the banquet, there was a Persian and Greek on each council during the dinner. The Persian partnered w/ Thersander asked him what countrymen he was — Orchomenus. Persian says that most of the Persians here at the feast or left encamped on the river will not survive. Thersander is surprised at this and asks the Persian if he should tell Mardonius and the rest of men held in high esteem. Persian says that no man back what comes from god. Important: bitterest pain of human beings is to know much and control nothing. Hds heard this from Thersander; also Thersander told this to others before the battle of Plataea occurred.
  • Mardonius was making his encampments in Boeotia and the Greeks in that part took the Persian side and contributed troops. Everyone besides the Phocians is involved in the invasion of Athens. Although the Phocians medized too, they medized “unwillingly and of necessity). A few days after the Persians arrived in Thebes, a thousand Phocian hoplites came to join them led by Harmocydes. After they arrived in Thebes, Mardonius told them to encamp on the plain. The the whole Persian army appeared. A rumor spread thru the Greek army w/ the Medes that the Calvary was going to shoot them. Harmocydes delivers a speech explaining that it is better to “to end your life in action and defense of yourselves than to offer yourselves to a death of the greatest dishonor.”
  • The Calvary encircles them, charge, and shoot their arrows (or at least stretch their bows). The Phocians crowd together in a solid mass. Then the Calvary wheels off and rides away. Mardonius sends a herald saying that the Phocians have proved themselves good men and they should carry on the war zealously.
  • The Spartans come to the isthmus and camp there. The rest of the the Peloponnesians saw the Spartans leaving for the expedition and decided to sacrifice and march from the isthmus to Eleusis. At a Eleusis they sacrifice again and join forces w/ the Athenians there. When they go as far as Erythrae in Boeotia, they learn that the barbarians are encamped at Asopus. Greeks range their ranks against them on the foothills of Cithaeron.
  • When the Greeks don’t come down on the plain, Mardonius sends the cavalry against them. The cavalry is led by Masistius, renowned among the Persians. Masistius rode a Nesaean horse w/ a golden bit and other decorations. Persian cavalry attacks in squadrons, which greatly impacts the Greeks and they taunt the Greeks by calling them women.
  • Most of the Calvary (Greek) that fell were from the Megarians since their position was just vulnerable to attack. Megarians send a herald to the Greek generals explaining the issue (“We need troops to succeed us in this post”). Athenians volunteer; 300 selected and led by Olympiodorus commands them. During battle, Masistius’ horse is shot by an arrow in the ribs, which causes the horse to rear and throw Masistius. The Athenians come for Masistius as soon as he falls. The Athenians take Masistius’ horse and kill him despite his defense (golden breastplate underneath a scarlet tunic). Some Athenian notices that blows aren’t affecting him due to breastplate and they strike him in the eye and he falls and dies. The Persian Calvary fails to notice the death of their leader Masistius until they stop and have no one to give orders. They shout and drive their horses to recover the body.
  • Athenians call on the rest of the army once they see Persians are coming in a mass instead of a squadron. There is a huge fight over the body of Masistius. They lose their leader’s body and many men and decide to march off to Mardonius.
  • Persian army arrives back in camp. Mardonius and the whole army mourn bitterly for Masistius and shave their hair, horses’ manes, and baggage animals and “indulge in endless lamentation”. This lamented enough to carry the sound thru Boeotia since he was just after Mardonius among the Persians.
  • The Greeks lay Masistius’ body on a wagon and convey him around (to show his stature and beauty). Greeks decide to come down to Plataea since it has more water than Erythrae (therefore, Plataea is better for camping). The Greeks form their battle order near the spring Gargaphia and the sanctuary of the hero Androcrates in an area of low hills and a flat piece of country. There is a great fight between the Tegeans and Athenians over claim to the other army wing (other already belonged to Spartans). The Tegeans tell the story of Echemus who kills Hyllus in a single combat, which they believe gives them claim to the other wing. They also say they won’t fight with Spartans and will concede but that Athenians’ deeds don’t match their own. Athenians discuss their many deeds such as the Battle of Marathon and say that they are willing to obey the Spartans. Spartans believe that the Athenians are more deserving so they beat the Tegeans.
  • 110,000 men on Greek side and 300,000 on Barbarian side
  • Mardonius learned that the Greeks were at Plataea. And his establishes the line of battle against the Greeks: Persians v. Spartans and Tegeans, etc
  • The next day both sides make sacrifices. Tisamenus makes the sacrifice for the Greeks. Tisamenus had followed the Greek army as a prophet. He had been told by the oracle of Delphi (Pythia) that he would win the five greatest contests. He mistakes this to mean athletic contests but the Spartans realize that this refers to battle and the Spartans try to bribe Tisamenus to become a leader in war w/ their kings. Tisamenus sees how important this is to the Spartans and raises the price, which the Spartans think is outrageous, but come are under eventually with the threat of Persian army looming (terms — make me citizen and give me share of everything). After Spartans change their mind, he adds an additional request (make my bro Hegias a Spartiate).
  • Digression — Story of Tisamenus is very similar to the story of Melampus. Argive women were losing their senses and Melampus was hired to cure them of their frenzy. Melampus request half the kingship as compensation which they refuse. After more women go crazy, the agree but Melampus asks for a 1/3 of the kingship for his brother Bias. The Argives too consent.
  • Spartiates make the concession since they really need Tisamenus who helps them win five great contests including at Plataea. At Plataea, Tisamenus tells the Spartans that their sacrifices are fair if they stay on the defense. Mardonius’ sacrifices say the same thing. His sacrifices are Greek style and he is aided by Hegesistratus. Hegesistratus had been in trouble w/ the Spartans. Spartans put him into bonds to execute him for the wrong things he had done against them. Hegesistratus manages to get a knife. Hegesistratus cuts off foot at the instep to slip out of the bonds. He dug a wall and fled to Tegea. His wound heals and he becomes the enemy of Sparta. This ends badly for him eventually when he is captured by Spartans and executed when he is prophesying in Zacynthus.
  • Hegesistratus did this for (1) hatred for Spartans and (2) money. Greeks on Persian side had their own seer called Hippomachus.
  • Timagenides advised Mardonius to set a watch on the passes out of Cithaeron since the Greeks were streaming in and out every day and they might be able to cut them off there. Mardonius thought this advice was good and sent his cavalry to Cithaeron where they kill humans and pack animals without mercy and sensed their booty (provisions?). They surrounded the rest and drove them into Mardonius’ camp after getting tired of slaughtering.
  • They waste another two days since no one is willing to start the fight. The barbarians would advance up to Asopus but neither side would initiate the actual fighting. Mardonius’ horse was inflicting damage on the Greeks. The Thebans supported Persia and conducted the horsemen up to the moment of encounter. But after that it was the Persians and Medes who took over from there and showed the deeds of valor.
  • Nothing happens for 10 days. On the eleventh day, Mardonius and Artabazus come together to talk. Mardonius is chafing at the inaction and the Greeks are increasing in size.
  • Artabazus thought that they should pack up the army and move to walls of Thebes (where they have food and fodder for pack animals stored, gold/silver). There they would sit and send these golden and silver objects to high up Greeks.
  • Mardonius has a different plan — more reckless and uncompromising; Mardonius is convinced that the Persian army is better than the Greek army. He insists that they engage now before the Greeks grow even further in size. He suggests that they dismiss Hegesistratus and do with the Persian custom (go to battle). No one stands against this position and so it wins.
  • Mardonius sends for the regimental commanders and Greek generals on the Persian side and ask them if they know any oracle about Persians meeting their destruction in Greece but they all keep quiet because (1). They either don’t know the prophecies or (2) they don’t think it’s safe for them to share them. Mardonius decides to share. Mardonius says that there is oracle that says that all Persians will perish when they come to Greece since they will despoil the oracle of Delphi. He says that we will not despoil that temple and thus, won’t meet our destruction.
  • Hds says that this oracle was not for the Persians but rather for the Illyrians and the host of the Enchelees. Then he reads the prophecy of Bacis for this battle.
  • Night falls and Alexander of Macedonian comes to tell the Athenian commanders that Mardonius can’t get sacrifices to come out as he would like and has decided to engage (Also he tells them to not tell anyone but Pausanias). Athenian generals come and tell Pausanias of this. Pausanias is very afraid of the Persians and says that the Athenians should face the Persians and his people will deal w/ the Boeotians and Greeks against them. His reasoning is that the Athenians know the Mede’s fighting style having faced them at Marathon but the Spartans have experience of the Boeotians and Thessalians. Athenians accept this and both sides exchange positions. The Boeotians find out about the switch and inform Mardonius who switches his sides likewise. The two sides switch until they arrive at the same position they had at the start.
  • Mardonius sends a herald to the Spartiates telling them that they aren’t brave. Spartans are said to be brave but really aren’t since Mardonius has seen them fleeing and turning over their position to the Athenians. Mardonius was waiting for the Spartiates to send a herald saying they were willing and ready to fight the Persians alone but they haven’t which proves they are cowardly. Mardonius makes the bargain — we should fight with equal numbers on both sides: Spartans for the Greeks and Persians for the Barbarians; If the rest must fight, let them fight after our conflict. If those two groups fight, left the victory count for the whole army.
  • No one answers and the herald goes back and tells a Mardonius this, which delights him (happy because of the empty victory). Mardonius launches his cavalry against the Greeks, which greatly injures the Greek army (w/ arrows and javelins). They also put dirt into the spring of Gargaphia, which the Greeks drink water from.
  • The Greeks gather to talk about their issues (lack of water + stress from Persian cavalry). Also they lack provisions now and there service train has been cut off from the cavalry. Generals decide that if the Persians hold off on their attack they will go to the island. There is a nearby river called Oeroe, daughter of Asopus. They decide on this place due to the fact it has plenty of water and there they are free from cavalry attack. They decide to go during the second watch of the night since Persians might gave the cavalry harass and attack them. It was decided that once the reached this point, they would send half of the army to Cithaeron to get the baggage train.
  • The Greeks suffer hardships all day. When night comes and the cavalry attacks stop, they go off (but not to the agreed on place). They escape to Plataea where they come to the temple of Hera to encamp and pile their arms. Pausanias sees them leave their positions and orders Spartans to follow them since he assumed that they’re going to the agreed on location. Other regiment commanders are prepared to follow Pausanias except for Amompharetus, commander of Pitanate regiment. Amompharetus says he won’t retreat before the foreigners and disgrace Sparta. Pausanias and Euryanax argue with Amompharetus and tell him that if he continued to refuse they would have to leave the Pitanate regiment behind if they marched off. This would leave Amompharetus and his men to perish.
  • Hds segues into the Athenians who didn’t leave their position since they know the Spartans’ spirits (do one thing and think another). When the camp moves, the Athenians send one of their men to see if they are really going to move or if the Spartans don’t intend on moving AND ask Pausanias what the Athenians should do.
  • Herald comes to the Spartans and sees them arguing bitterly. Pausanias and Euryanax fail to convince Amompharetus to not endanger the Spartans by leaving them alone. Amompharetus hurls a rock at Pausanias’ feet as his vote against fleeing before the barbarians. Pausanias calls Amompharetus a madman and he turns to the Athenian herald and commands him to tell the Athenians of the position he is in and requests that they join his troops and follow whatever he does (re: withdrawal).
  • The herald goes back to Athenians. At daybreak the Spartans are stil arguing with one another. Pausanias gives the signal and leads the rest thru hills. The Tegeans follow. Pausanias didn’t think that Amompharetus would stay behind if the rest of the Spartans left. The Athenians set themselves up and march (in a different route than Spartans). Spartans — broken ground and foot hills since fear of Persian horses and Athenians — plain.
  • Amompharetus refuses to believe that Pausanias would desert him but realizes that they do when he sees Pausanias moving forward. He orders his regiment to pick up their arms and they move to Argiopium. Pausanias’ troops were waiting there so they could offer help if Amompharetus refused to leave his position. As they meet the barbarian Calvary attacks.
  • Mardonius, when he learned that the Greeks had went away in the night, summoned Thorax of Larissa and his brothers, Eurypylus and Thrasydeius, and yelled at them because they had since that Spartans don’t flee from battle. Mardonius says he pardons them due to their lack of experience with the enemy but is amazed at Artabazus who feared the enemy and proposed that they go away to Thebes (where they could be besieged). He says that we’ll talk about it later (esp. w/ the king). Mardonius resolves to pursue the enemy until they catch them and make them pay for their wrongs against Persia.
  • Persians make for the Greeks in large, unorganized masses. Pausanias sends message to Athenians asking for help (defend us or send archers at least). Athenians are eager to help but when they start making their way they are attacked by the Greeks who oppose them. The Spartans and Tegeans are left isolated. They decide to offer sacrifice but they are not favorable and many of their men are injured or killed. Persians make barrier of wicker shields and shoot missiles at them. Pausanias invokes the goddess (temple of Hera) and then the sacrifices prove favorable.
  • Tegeans take lead in attacking the Persians.
  • (1) Fight around wicker shield barricade -> (2) hand to hand struggling
  • Persians and Greeks are equal except that Greeks don’t have armor and are unskilled and not as cunning. Persians charge in singles or tens (in close packed groups) and hurl themselves at the Spartans and wind up being destroyed.
  • Mardonius himself fought on horseback but eventually falls. Mardonius’ demise is the retribution for Leonidas’ death (glory for Pausanias winning the fairest of victories). Mardonius eventually fell. Mardonius was killed by Aeimnestus, a notable Spartan.
  • After Persians are routed by the Spartans, they fled to their camp and the fort in Thebes.
  • Artabazus was dissatisfied with the king leaving Mardonius. He took action to show his discontent with Mardonius’ actions. Artabazus was in command of some 40 thousand men that he leads out. When Artabazus sees the Persians fleeing, he too flees w/ his men BUT not to Thebes or the camp but to the Hellespont
  • Hds said that everything depended on the Persians since their allies fled just because they saw the Persians running. They all fled except the cavalry (esp. the Boeotian cavalry). Cavalry helped those who fled by staying close to the enemy and shielding their friends from the Greeks pursuing them.
  • The Greeks slaughter Xerxes’ men. The Greeks in the temple of Hera away from the battle hear that Pausanias’ men won and decide to go to (1) the spurs of the mountain and the hills, (2) on the road that made straight for the temple of Demeter, (3) others with the Megarians and the Phliasians through the level land. The Theban cavalry spies M + P and kills 600 of them and sweeps the rest to Cithaeron.
  • Persians at their wooden stronghold manage to hold ground against the Spartans until the Athenians arrive. Athenians eventually climb the wall and tear it down. They slaughter the Persians, leaving perhaps 3000 out of 300,000. They say that only 91 Spartans perished as well as 16 Tegeans and 52 Athenians..
  • Hds beliefs- Spartans were most courageous for successfully attacking Persians, Persians were the strongest
  • Best of Spartans — Aristodemus for being the sole survivor of 300 in Thermopylae. Lot of people say Aristidemus was chasing death and thus, is not as great as Posidonius. After him the bravest were Posidonius and Philocyon and Amompharetus, the Spartiate.
  • Callicrates might be another highly renowned figure but he died outside of battle; most handsome of all Greeks on that day. When Pausanias was making the sacrifices, Callicrates was pierced in the ribs by an arrow. Callicrates told Arimnestus that he didn’t mind dying for Greece BUT he did mind that he died w/out fighting or doing any great deed.
  • Sophanes earned glory among the Athenians. Sophanes came from Decelea. There are 2 stories told about Sophanes — (1) He carried an iron anchor attached to his armor (cuirass). When he drew near the enemy, he would throw the anchor down. He would pick it back up when the enemy fled. (2) He had the device of an anchor on his shield. Sophanes also killed Eurybiades, a pentathlon winner. Sophanes is later killed by the Edoni in a fight for gold mines.
  • After barbarians are bested by the Greeks at Plataea, a female deserter comes to the Greek side. The female deserter was the concubine of Pharandates, son of Teaspis, a Persian and she had dressed herself with golden ornaments and fine clothing. She clasps at Pausanias’ knees (after seeing him directing others) and begs him to save her from being a prisoner of war. She says that she is a Coan, daughter of Hegetorides. Pausanias is good guest friends w/ Hegetorides and entrusts her w/ ephors and sends her to Aegina as she requests.
  • Shortly after the female deserter of Coa, the Mantineans arrive and mourn over before my late for the battle. The Mantineans want to follow the Medes under Artabazus who had fled but Spartans disagree
  • Hds talks about Lampon, chief man of Aegina. Lampon approaches Pausanias to try to get him to impale the dead Mardonius’ body as vengeance for Pausanias’ uncle Leonidas. Pausanias refuses; such actions are fit for barbarians, satisfied w/ good actions and words, Leonidas has been avenged. Pausanias allows Lampon to leave unscathed and tells him as such.
  • Pausanias commands no one to touch the Persian spoils and orders the helots to collect it all. The helots steal a lot to sell to the Aeginetans. They assigned a tenth of the treasure to the god of Delphi and a couple more tenths (i.e. Gold tripod and bronze Zeus). Hds says no one knows how much of the spoils were given to the brave people of Plataea.
  • We are told that Xerxes left all his gear for Mardonius when he fled from Greece. Pausanias sees the tent filled w/ gold and silver and orders the cooks to prepare a meal just like Xerxes’ meals. He laughs at the lavish surroundings and gets the cooks to prepare a laconian meal for kicks. Pausanias tells the Greek assembly that the Median king is stupid; he had lavish meals and fought to take our miserable fare.
  • Mardonius’ body had vanished a day after the Battle of Plataea. No one knows who took it or who buried Mardonius. Many men are said to have done it and Mardonius’ bro, Artontes, gave a lot of rewards for people doing this. There is a rumor that an Ephesian man, Dionysophanes did it.
  • Hds discusses the different burial practices — Greeks bury dead separately, Spartans make 3 burial places, Tegeans bury dead in one grave, Athenians, Megarians, and Phliasians do likewise to Tegeans
  • Greeks decide to march on Thebes against those who supported Persians, especially Timagenidas and Attaginus. If Thebes refused to give these men up then they would siege Thebes until the point of destruction. Greeks ravage the country. On the 19th day, Timagenidas says let’s pay them if this just a pretext for money OR surrender ourselves for an open trial. Attaginus flees. His sons are captured but Pausanias spares them since they don’t have anything to do with it. Pausanias has the other men surrendered by Thebes executed in Corinth.
  • When Artabazus arrives in Thessaly he gets a banquet and is afraid to tell them the truth (since they might cut him down). Artabazus tells Thessalians that he is sent by his army for a certain matter and must go to Thrace. He instructs Thessalians to entertain Mardonius and his army and then he marches for Thrace. In Byzantium Many of Artabazus’ men are cut down by the Thracians or overcome by hunger and weariness. He crosses over by boat in Byzantium and comes home to Asia.
  • On the same day that Persians were defeated at Plataea, they faced a defeat in Mycale (in Ionia). When the Greeks who came w/ Leotychides established themselves at Delos, messengers from Samos (Lampon, son of Thrasycles, and Athenagoras, son of Archestratides, and Hegesistratus, son of Aristagoras) came to them. Leotychides accepts Hegesistratus’s omen to be loyal allies. Samians gave their pledges and took the oaths of alliance with the Greeks and sailed away after. Leotychides had Hegesistratus sail with his own men for the omens sake.
  • The next day the Greeks do favorable sacrifices. Their prophet = Deiphonus.
  • Digression (😤) into Deiphonus’ father: There is a certain flock in Apollonia that is sacred to the sun. Each night certain chosen men, of the highest reputation, wealth, and birth guard it for one year’s space. Euenius was chosen to keep guard of it. One night Euenius fell asleep while guarding it and some wolves got in and killed 60 of the flock. Euenius tells nobody and intends to replace them but the people of Apollonia find out. The court finds Euenius guilty and he must lose his eyes. They blind him. Going forward the flock have no more young and their land has no more crops. They asked the prophets why this happened and they say that the reason is retribution for Euenius. The people of Apollonia approach Euenius and ask him what he would take in exchange for his blinding. Euenius had no knowledge of the oracle and settles on the two finest estates; he feels tricked for not knowing about the oracle’s words. Some say that Euenius was not really Deiphonus’ father and Deiphonus just practiced prophecy around town using his name.
  • The Greeks from Delos come to Samos and anchor by the temple of Hera and prepare for a sea fight. Persians learn about this, put boats in direction of mainland w/ other ships (sent Phoenicians home). Persians had decided not to fight since they didn’t think they were a match for the Greeks. Persians also drew up their ships on shore and built a barrier made of stones and wood and they also fixed stakes around the fence.
  • The Greeks learn that Persians have escaped to mainland and are vexed. They decide to sail to the mainland too. No one engages them when they pass. Leotychides calls out to the Ionians saying that the code word is Hera so that this either eludes the barbarians and persuades the Ionians or makes the Persians distrust the Ionians. Greeks bring their ships to land and disembark on the beach. Persians take arms away from Samians since they think that they’re not loyal (since they have freed Athenian prisoners of war from barbarian ships). Persians also gave orders to the people of Miletus to guard the passes on the mountains of Mycale; said it was because the Milesians best knew the country there but it was really to get them away from the army.
  • Greeks finish preparations and attack Barbarians. A rumor had went thru the camp that the Greeks had beaten Mardonius’ army in the fight in Boeotia. This combined w/ the fact that the Persian disaster at Plataea occurred on the same day encouraged them to fight (Note: shrine of Eleusinian Demeter at both battles).
  • Persians stand ground for a while using a barricade but Greeks shout encouragements to one another and dashed aside the wicker shields and broke in and charged at Persians. Persians flee to the wall.
  • After Greeks take the wall, barbarians lose hope and try to flee (except the Persians who fight in small groups). 2 Persian commanders fled — Artaÿntes and Ithamitres and 2 were killed — Mardontes and Tigranes.
  • Spartans come in midst of fighting. Many Greeks fell including the Sicyonians and their general, Perilaus. Samians from Persian side were disarmed and try to help Greeks. The other Ionians observe the Samians and decide to desert the Persians and attacked them.
  • Milesians did not do their task: guard the mountain passes to secure the Persian retreat. Instead the Milesians led the barbarians to flee along other roads, which brought them straight into their enemies. For the 2nd time, Ionia revolted from the Persians.
  • Greeks kill most of the barbarians (some flee, some fight). Greeks burn the ships and the wall and sail off to Samos. At Samos, the Greeks discuss dispeopling Ionia and where they could resettle the Ionians (they need protection, unlikely for Persians to let them go unscathed). Athenians don’t stand for this dispeopling notion or Peloponnesians settling matters in council regarding their colonists. Peloponnesians yield.
  • More people join the Greek alliance including: the Samians, the Chians, the Lesbians, and the other islanders who had fought with the Greeks.
  • Barbarians who had fled to Mycale got away to Sardis. On their way, Masistes, Darius’ son, abuses Artayntes saying that his generalship was worse than a woman’s since y’know being a woman is the worst thing to Persians 😒. When Artayntes heard this, he drew his scimitar and intended to kill Masistes but Xenagoras of Halicarnassus stops him from running at Masistes by seizing, lifting, and throwing him on the ground. This wins Xenagoras thanks from M and X and gets Cilicia rule.
  • Story of Xerxes falling in love with Masistes’ wife: King has been in Sardis after fleeing from Athens. He sends to Masistes’ wife unsuccessfully many times and he doesn’t use violence out of concern for Masistes. Xerxes arranges a marriage between his son Darius and Masistes’ daughter. Xerxes takes Darius’ bride into his own house and falls in love w/ her. Masistes’ daughter was named Artaÿnte.
  • Xerxes’ wife Amestris makes him a great cloak and he parades in it in front of Artaÿnte. He bade her to ask for anything she wants and of course, she wants the cloak. X is afraid of Amestris if she discovers Artaÿnte is wearing it. He is unable to persuade her to choose cities or gold and he begrudgingly gives her the cloak which she wears.
  • Amestris learn of this but doesn’t hold a grudge against Artaÿnte. She believes that Masistes’ wife is to blame and plots her destruction. Amestris waits for when there is an annual feast on the king’s birthday (called Tukta which means perfection in Greek). There the king anoints his head and distributes gifts among the Persians. On that day Amestris requests Masistes’ wife. X doesn’t want to do this (esp. to his bro’s wife) but no one can refuse a request during the king’s banquet so he concedes. He says Amestris can do as she pleases and sends for Masistes to whom he offers one of his daughters. Masistes rebuffs at this and desires to continue living w/ his wife. X gets angry — takes back offer for one of his daughters and says M won’t have his present wife either.
  • While X and M are conversing, Amestris sees for M’s wife and mutilates her. She cuts off her breasts and threw them, her nose, ear, and lips to the dogs and sends her back home.
  • Masistes sees his mutilated wife, takes counsel w/ his children, and goes off to Bactria w/ his sons and other people to raise the province to revolt against the king. This doesn’t happen because X finds out and has M, his sons, and supporters killed.
  • Greeks are making for the Hellespont.
  • People from neighboring towns come to Sestos. One person was Oeobazus a Persian from Cardia where he had stored the gear of the bridges. The supreme governor — Artaÿctes. Artaÿctes is known as being clever and had cheated the king by stealing the gold and silver of Protesilaus. Artaÿctes convinces X to do this by saying there is some Greek guy who made war on your land and you should give me his house to show that no man should make war on your land.
  • Athenians are vexed since they are unable to go home or capture the fort and ask generals to lead them back. The generals refuse until they capture the fortification or Athens recalled them. People at the fort were miserable (resorted to boiling down leather strings of beds to eat). When they run out of these, the Persians including Artaÿctes and Oeobazus run away at night. The Chersonesians snitch on them to Athenians who pursue them.
  • Oeobazus fled to Thrace where was captured by the Thracian Apsinthians caught him and sacrificed him to a local,God named Plistorus. The rest w/ Artaÿctes flee later; some die and some are captured and put into chains in Sestos including Artaÿctes and his sons.
  • Hds recounts story told by Chersonese: one of the guards was frying sprats and noted that the sprats lay on the coals they jumped and gasped like fish being caught. Other men crowd around to marvel at this. Artaÿctes says this is directed to him from Protesilaus who’s saying I still have the power w/ a god to get revenge on someone who has wronged me. Artaÿctes says he’s willing to offer the god one hundred talents for the shrine property and give two hundred talents to the Athenians for my life and his son’s but these promises fail to move Xanthippus. The people want for Art to be destroyed. They brought Artaÿctes to where Xerxes had bridged the strait supposedly and they nailed him to boards and hung him up and made him watch his son be stoned.
  • Artaÿctes who had been hung up had devised a proposal that the Persians took from him and offered to Cyrus — let us move from this land of ours — for it is little and rocky, too — and take something better than it. Cyrus warns them that soft lands breed soft men and that they should prepare to be ruled rather than rule if they do this. They follow his judgement and decide to rule in a wretched land.
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