Beyond Currencies — World’s Most Incredible Minds — Numismatics — Philately

**Blaise Pascal — ****Born****: June 19, 1623, ****Died****: August 19, 1662**

*Father of mechanical calculator and Roulette.*

**In 1642, while still a teenager, he started some pioneering work on calculating machines. After three years of effort and fifty prototypes, he built 20 finished machines (called ****Pascal’s calculators**** and later Pascalines) over the following ten years,establishing him as one of the first two inventors of the ****mechanical calculator** .

**Notable ideas**

**Pascal’s Wager**** — ****Pascal’s triangle**** — ****Pascal’s law**** — ****Pascal’s theorem**

Pascal had poor health, especially after his 18th year, and his death came just two months after his 39th birthday.

Pascal’s work in the fields of the study of hydrodynamics and hydrostatics centered on the principles of hydraulic fluids. His inventions include the hydraulic press (using hydraulic pressure to multiply force) and the syringe. He proved that hydrostatic pressure depends not on the weight of the fluid but on the elevation difference. He demonstrated this principle by attaching a thin tube to a barrel full of water and filling the tube with water up to the level of the third floor of a building. This caused the barrel to leak, in what became known as Pascal’s barrel experiment.

While still in his teens he began building calculating machines which later became known as Pascal’s calculators. The calculators, which he had developed with the aim of helping his father in calculating taxes, became Pascal’s first claim to fame. *Blaise Pascal, made an amazing impression on the world during his lifetime. He truly created real money **Roulette** and is known as the Father of Roulette.*

Pascal continued to influence mathematics throughout his life. His *Traité du triangle arithmétique* (“Treatise on the Arithmetical Triangle”) of 1653 described a convenient tabular presentation for binomial coefficients, now called Pascal’s triangle.