The discovery of electromagnetic induction and the invention of dynamo was the reason for crowning Faraday as the Father of electricity .
Michael Faraday /ˈfæ.rəˌdeɪ/ FRS was an English scientist who contributed to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. His main discoveries include those of electromagnetic induction, diamagnetism and electrolysis.
Born: September 22, 1791, Newington Butts, London, United Kingdom
Died: August 25, 1867, Hampton Court Palace, Molesey, United Kingdom
Royal Medal (1835 & 1846)
Copley Medal (1832 & 1838)
Rumford Medal (1846)
Albert Medal (1866)
Faraday’s law of induction
Faraday’s laws of electrolysis
Lines of force
Michael Faraday, who came from a very poor family, became one of the greatest scientists in history. His achievement was remarkable in a time when science was the preserve of people born into privileged families. The unit of electrical capacitance is named the farad in his honor, with the symbol F.
In 1821, aged 29, he was promoted to be Superintendent of House and Laboratory of the Royal Institution. He also married Sarah Barnard. He and his bride lived in rooms in the Royal Institution for most of the next 46 years: no longer in attic rooms; they now lived in a comfortable suite Humphry Davy himself had once lived in.
In 1824, aged 32, he was elected to the Royal Society. This was recognition that he had become a notable scientist in his own right.
In 1825, aged 33, he became Director of the Royal Institution’s Laboratory.
In 1833, aged 41, he became Fullerian Professor of Chemistry at the Royal Institution of Great Britain. He held this position for the rest of his life.
In 1848, aged 54, and again in 1858 he was offered the Presidency of the Royal Society, but he turned it down.
1821: Discovery of Electromagnetic Rotation
This is a glimpse of what would eventually develop into the electric motor, based on Hans Christian Oersted’s discovery that a wire carrying electric current has magnetic properties.
1823: Gas Liquefaction and Refrigeration
In 1802 John Dalton had stated his belief that all gases could be liquified by the use of low temperatures and/or high pressures. Faraday provided hard evidence for Dalton’s belief by applying pressure to liquefy chlorine gas and ammonia gas for the first time.
The importance of Faraday’s discovery was that he had shown that mechanical pumps could transform a gas at room temperature into a liquid. The liquid could then be evaporated, cooling its surroundings and the resulting gas could be collected and compressed by a pump into a liquid again, then the whole cycle could be repeated. This is the basis of how modern refrigerators and freezers work.
In 1862 Ferdinand Carré demonstrated the world’s first commercial ice-making machine at the Universal London Exhibition. The machine used ammonia as its coolant and produced ice at the rate of 200 kg per hour.
1825: Discovery of Benzene
Historically, benzene is one of the most important substances in chemistry, both in a practical sense — i.e. making new materials; and in a theoretical sense — i.e. understanding chemical bonding. Michael Faraday discovered benzene in the oily residue left behind from producing gas for lighting in London.
1831: Discovery of Electromagnetic Induction
This was an enormously important discovery for the future of both science andtechnology. Faraday discovered that a varying magnetic field causes electricity to flow in an electric circuit.
Most of the power in our homes today is produced using this principle. Rotation (kinetic energy) is converted into electricity using electromagnetic induction. The rotation can be produced by high pressure steam from coal, gas, or nuclear energy turning turbines; or by hydroelectric plants; or by wind-turbines, for example.
1834: Faraday’s Laws of Electrolysis
Faraday was one of the major players in the founding of the new science of electrochemistry. This is the science of understanding what happens at the interface of an electrode with an ionic substance. Electrochemistry is the science that has produced the Li ion batteries and metal hydride batteries capable of powering modern mobile technology. Faraday’s laws are vital to our understanding of electrode reactions.
1836: Invention of the Faraday Cage
Faraday discovered that when an electrical conductor becomes charged, all of the extra charge sits on the outside of the conductor. This means that the extra charge does not appear on the inside of a room or cage made of metal.
1845: Discovery of the Faraday Effect — a magneto-optical effect
This was another vital experiment in the history of science, the first to link electromagnetism and light — a link finally described fully by James Clerk Maxwell’s equations in 1864, which established that light is an electromagnetic wave.
Faraday discovered that a magnetic field causes the plane of light polarization to rotate.
1845: Discovery of Diamagnetism as a Property of all Matter
Most people are familiar with ferromagnetism — the type shown by normal magnets.
The frog is slightly diamagnetic. The diamagnetism opposes a magnetic field — in this case a very strong magnetic field — and the frog floats because of magnetic repulsion.