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Mountain marmot by Denali National Park and the photographer Ken Conger

In the previous post, we went over Fʀᴀᴄᴛᴀʟ at a very high level, describing its features and what kind of subprotocols we would need to make it work. Part II details Fʀᴀᴄᴛᴀʟ’s subprotocols, such as Univariate Sumcheck for rational functions, Holographic Lincheck, Sparse Matrix Arithmetization or the Verifier

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Written by Nat Bunner, zero-knowledge cryptography researcher & protocol developer at Metastate. For feedback or questions, please do not hesitate to contact us : team@metastate.dev

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Marmot Baby
Marmot Baby
Marmot baby via Wikimedia Commons

Fractal is a new general-purpose zero-knowledge proof system (and no, it doesn’t have anything to do with the fractals you’re probably thinking of). While new advances in SNARKs are being made almost daily, a couple of things make Fractal stand out:

  • Transparent setup. There is no trapdoor in the setup; it’s based entirely on public randomness.
  • Recursive composability. Verification can be written as an R1CS instance, allowing Fractal to verify another Fractal proof.
  • Security against quantum adversaries. Whereas some constructions are secure under classical intractability assumptions that don’t hold for quantum computers, Fractal is based on hash functions, for which we don’t have any truly feasible quantum attacks. …


Porcupine
Porcupine
Porcupine from New Atlas

Previously, Part I of this blog post series introduced Supersonic, a new SNARK created by combining a new Polynomial Commitment Scheme with existing Interactive Oracle Proofs. Part II introduces the DARK Integer Commitment Scheme and describes at a high level how DARK can be used as a Homomorphic Polynomial Commitment Scheme, and how DARK may be instantiated in various groups of unknown order.

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Written by Joseph Bebel, zero-knowledge cryptography researcher & protocol developer at Metastate. For feedback or questions, please do not hesitate to contact us : team@metastate.dev

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About

Awa Sun Yin

Founder @Cryptium Labs & @MetastateDev

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