Momentum Reading List

Engler, Paul and Newkirk, Kai. (2013) Creating Moments of the Whirlwind: Why Effective Movement-Building Demands Both Structure and Momentum.

Engler, Mark. (2013). The Machiavelli of Nonviolence. Dissent, Fall 2013, pp. 59–65.

Engler, Mark and Engler, Paul. (2014, March 7). Can Frances Fox Piven’s theory of disruptive power create the next Occupy? Waging Nonviolence. Retrieved June 9, 2014 (http://wagingnonviolence.org/feature/can-frances-fox-pivens-theory-disruptive-power-create-next-occupy/)

Engler, Mark & Engler, Paul. (2013, June 3). Should we fight the system or be the change? Waging Nonviolence. Retrieved June 9, 2014 www.wagingnonviolence.org/feature/fight-system-change/

Moyer, Bill. (2001). “Chapter 1: The MAP Theory of Social Activism.” Pp. 10–20 in Doing

Democracy: The MAP Model for Organizing Social Movements. New Society Publishers.

Moyer, Bill. (2001). “Chapter 3: The Eight Stages of Social Movements.” Pp. 42–86 in Doing Democracy: The MAP Model for Organizing Social Movements. New Society Publishers.

Russell, Joshua Kahn. (2012). “Shift the Spectrum of Allies.” Beautiful Trouble: A Toolbox for Revolution, edited by A. Boyd and D. O. Mitchell. New York, NY: OR Books. Retrieved June 9, 2014

Stoner, Eric. (2012). “Pillars of Support.” Beautiful Trouble: A Toolbox for Revolution, edited by A. Boyd and D. O. Mitchell. New York, NY: OR Books. Retrieved June 9, 2014 http://beautifultrouble.org/theory/pillars-of-support/

Smucker, Jonathan Matthew and Joshua Kahn Russell and Zack Malitz. (2012.) “Expressive & Instrumental Actions.” Pp. 232–233 in Beautiful Trouble: A Toolbox for Revolution, edited by A. Boyd and D. O. Mitchell. New York: OR Books.

CANVAS. (2007). “Chapter 6: Activating Nonviolent Power: Methods of Nonviolent Action.” Pp. 66–79 in CANVAS Core Curriculum: A Guide to Effective Nonviolent Struggle. Retrieved June 9, 2014 http://www.canvasopedia.org/images/books/CANVAS-Core-Curriculum/CANVAS-Core-Curriculum-web.pdf

CANVAS. (2007). “Chapter 7: Strategy And Principles of Nonviolent Struggle.” Pp. 84–93 in CANVAS Core Curriculum: A Guide to Effective Nonviolent Struggle. Retrieved June 9, 2014 http://www.canvasopedia.org/images/books/CANVAS-Core-Curriculum/CANVAS-Core-Curriculum-web.pdf

Our Principles. 99Rise. Retrieved June 9, 2014 http://www.99rise.org/our_principles

Stories of Integration in the Past

The following articles describe stories of how the United Farm Workers and Saul Alinsky experimented with integrated, or hybrid, models of momentum and structure. There are many other examples of hybrid models such as Gandhi and the Indian Independence Movement and Solidarity in Poland. However, these are the only source materials that explicitly incorporate the distinction between momentum and structure and provide details about how they are hybrids.

Engler, Mark and Engler, Paul. (2010, June). Four ways of looking at an Aztec eagle: The contested legacy of Cesar Chavez and the United Farmworkers. The Sixties, 3:1, pp. 135 -142.

Engler, Mark and Engler, Paul. (2014, April 2). Would Saul Alinsky break his own rules? Waging Nonviolence.

Engler, Paul. (2001). Organizing in the Moment of the Whirlwind: The Anti-Globalization Movement, Satyagraha and Organizing Traditions (Master’s Thesis). Hampshire College, Amherst, MA.

Field of Civil Resistance

What is the field of Civil Resistance (aka Nonviolent Conflict)? Here are a few articles that describe the field, how it is different from “principled nonviolence,” the importance of Gene Sharp in the creation of the field, and some misconceptions and core concepts.

Engler, M. (2013, Fall). The Machiavelli of Nonviolence. Dissent, pp. 59–65.

Basic Concepts. International Center on Nonviolent Conflict. Retrieved June 9, 2014 (http://www.nonviolent-conflict.org/index.php/what-is-icnc/icnc-basic-concepts)

Merriman, Hardy. (2010, November 19). The trifecta of civil resistance: unity, planning, discipline. openDemocracy. Retrieved June 9, 2014 (http://www.opendemocracy.net/hardy-merriman/trifecta-of-civil-resistance-unity-planning-discipline)

Theory of Change: Monolithic and Social view of Power

The field of Civil Resistance provides a good theoretical framework for what we call the “Theory of Change” or pluralistic model of power. This is a very helpful theory that allows us to understand how social movements work and how to overthrow oppressive systems. It also demonstrates how social movements function and win in a different way from other dominant organizing traditions or how the public and media often believe they win. Movements work through gaining active public support, not through direct leverage on a target.

Sharp, Gene. (2010). “Ch. 3: Whence Comes the Power?” Pp. 17 -23 in From Dictatorship to Democracy: A Conceptual Framework for Liberation (4th U.S. ed.). East Boston, Mass.: Albert Einstein Institution. Retrieved June 9, 2014 (http://www.aeinstein.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/FDTD.pdf)

Helvey, R. L. (2004). “Chapter 1: Theory of Political Power.” Pp. 1–8 in On Strategic Nonviolent Conflict: Thinking About the Fundamentals. Boston, MA: Albert Einstein Institute. Retrieved June 9, 2014 (http://www.aeinstein.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/OSNC.pdf)

CANVAS. (2007). “Chapter 2: Power in Society: Models and Sources of Power.” Pp. 22–31 in CANVAS Core Curriculum: A Guide to Effective Nonviolent Struggle. Retrieved June 9, 2014 (http://www.canvasopedia.org/images/books/CANVAS-Core-Curriculum/CANVAS-Core-Curriculum-web.pdf)

Moyer, Bill. (2001). “Chapter 1: The MAP Theory of Social Activism.” Pp. 10–20 in Doing Democracy: The MAP Model for Organizing Social Movements. New Society Publishers.

Pillars of Support and Spectrum of Support

Now that we understand the theory of change and the power of popular social movements, the next question is: how do we polarize public support? How does gaining active public support translate into victory? Civil Resistance explains that members of society can actively support the movement in a variety of ways, beyond simply voting. People can support the movement by withdrawing support from “pillars” that maintain systems of oppression and through the institutions they are part of.

CANVAS. (2007). “Chapter 3: Pillars of Support.” Pp. 32–43 in CANVAS Core Curriculum: A Guide to Effective Nonviolent Struggle. Retrieved June 9, 2014 (http://www.canvasopedia.org/images/books/CANVAS-Core-Curriculum/CANVAS-Core-Curriculum-web.pdf)

Helvey, Robert L. (2004). “Chapter 2: Pillars of Support.” Pp. 9–18 in On Strategic Nonviolent Conflict: Thinking About the Fundamentals. Boston, MA: Albert Einstein Institute. Retrieved June 9, 2014 (http://www.aeinstein.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/OSNC.pdf)

Stoner, Eric. (2012). “Pillars of Support.” Beautiful Trouble: A Toolbox for Revolution, edited by A. Boyd and D. O. Mitchell. New York, NY: OR Books. Retrieved June 9, 2014 (http://beautifultrouble.org/theory/pillars-of-support/)

Spectrum of Support

The spectrum of support demonstrates how the movement wins a supermajority of popular support through polarization and shifting public opinion toward the movement. This is not done by simply gaining passive support from a majority, but by neutralizing some of the opposition, moving neutral observers to passively support the cause, passive supporters to active supporters, and active supporters to join the movement. This tool helps us measure whether we are gaining support for our movement, along with indicators such as polling and participation.

Russell, Joshua Kahn. (2012). “Shift the Spectrum of Allies.” Beautiful Trouble: A Toolbox for Revolution, edited by A. Boyd and D. O. Mitchell. New York, NY: OR Books. Retrieved June 9, 2014 (http://beautifultrouble.org/principle/shift-the-spectrum-of-allies/)

Moyer, Bill. (2001). “Chapter 1: The MAP Theory of Social Activism.” Pp. 10–20 in Doing Democracy: The MAP Model for Organizing Social Movements. New Society Publishers.

Chenoweth, E. (2013, October 25). The Dissident’s Toolkit: Want to topple an autocrat? Street demonstrations are just one tool among many. Foreign Policy. http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2013/10/24/the_dissidents_toolkit

Engler, M., & Engler, P. (2014, March 7). Can Frances Fox Piven’s theory of disruptive power create the next Occupy? Waging Nonviolence. http://wagingnonviolence.org/feature/can-frances-fox-pivens-theory-disruptive-power-create-next-occupy/

Power Graph

The power graph is a tool for subjectively measuring popular support. Instead of surveying the general public, you measure certain segments of the population (“pillars” and institutions) such as students, mainstream media, unions, political parties, etc. In polling this is called microtargeting. This can be a helpful exercise to do subjectively with our own judgement or with polling. Frank Luntz, famous Republican strategist, measures the depth and width of support for issues by polling the base of support, neutrals and moderates, and the base of the opposition over time to determine the impact of marketing, advertising, and public events. This is another way of doing a simple power graph.

CANVAS. (2007). “Chapter 8: Planning Methodologies: The Power Graph.” Pp. 94–105 in CANVAS Core Curriculum: A Guide to Effective Nonviolent Struggle. Retrieved June 9, 2014 (http://www.canvasopedia.org/images/books/CANVAS-Core-Curriculum/CANVAS-Core-Curriculum-web.pdf)

Grand Strategy

Once you have a firm grasp of the hybrid model, theory of power, pillars of support, and spectrum of support, you are ready to develop an actual strategy to win. While any effort is made up of a sequence of actions and tactics, a grand strategy provides a framework for everyone to understand how all the actions of the movement build toward a common goal or goals. This strategy does not have to be too specific — it unites the movement around a basic theory of change and creates a common sense of unity that can be used to leverage all the diverse efforts of the movement toward a goal.

Sharp, Gene. (2010). “Chapter 7: Planning Strategy.” Pp. 47–57 in From Dictatorship to Democracy: A Conceptual Framework for Liberation (4th U.S. ed., ). East Boston, MA: Albert Einstein Institution. (http://www.aeinstein.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/FDTD.pdf)

CANVAS. (2007). “Chapter 7: Strategy And Principles of Nonviolent Struggle.” Pp. 84–93 in CANVAS Core Curriculum: A Guide to Effective Nonviolent Struggle. Retrieved June 9, 2014 (http://www.canvasopedia.org/images/books/CANVAS-Core-Curriculum/CANVAS-Core-Curriculum-web.pdf)

Sharp, Gene. (2005). Waging Nonviolent Struggle. Pp. 454–469.

Actions & Tactics

CANVAS. (2007). “Chapter 6: Activating Nonviolent Power: Methods of Nonviolent Action.” Pp. 66–79 in CANVAS Core Curriculum: A Guide to Effective Nonviolent Struggle. Retrieved June 9, 2014 (http://www.canvasopedia.org/images/books/CANVAS-Core-Curriculum/CANVAS-Core-Curriculum-web.pdf)

Sharp, Gene. (2005). Waging Nonviolent Struggle. Pp. 49–65. Boyd, Andrew and Mitchell, Dave. O. (Eds.). (2012). Beautiful Trouble: A Toolbox for Revolution. New York, NY: OR Books. Retrieved June 9, 2014 (http://beautifultrouble.org/tactic/)

Dilemma Actions

CANVAS. (2007). “Chapter 12: Managing a Movement: Dilemma Actions.” Pp. 144–151 in CANVAS Core Curriculum: A Guide to Effective Nonviolent Struggle. Retrieved June 9, 2014 (http://www.canvasopedia.org/images/books/CANVAS-Core-Curriculum/CANVAS-Core-Curriculum-web.pdf)

Moments of the Whirlwind & Trigger Events

Moments of the whirlwind and trigger events are key mechanisms for building power in our hybrid model. They generate mass amounts of popular support for our movements, which we can then absorb strategically and build on. We include Bill Moyer’s work as the best summary of trigger events and how they affect the movement.

Moyer, Bill. (2001). “Chapter 3: The Eight Stages of Social Movements.” Pp. 42–86 in Doing Democracy: The MAP Model for Organizing Social Movements. New Society Publishers.

Engler, Paul. (2001). Organizing in the Moment of the Whirlwind: The Anti-Globalization Movement, Satyagraha and Organizing Traditions (Master’s Thesis). Hampshire College, Amherst, MA.http://www.canvasopedia.org/images/books/CANVAS-Core-Curriculum/CANVAS-Core-Curriculum-web.pdf

Why Escalation Works and Political Jujitsu

How does escalation work and why? Escalation is one of the key concepts of civil resistance. It is what creates trigger events and moments of the whirlwind. Gandhi, for example, believed that self sacrifice and suffering are engines of momentum. We use the short explanation in Bondurant’s Conquest of Violence to establish a basic concept. Momentum is generated primarily through voluntary sacrifice and suffering repression, which often backfires on police and other pillars that support oppressors, building more support for the movement. In civil resistance, this concept is called political or moral jiu-jitsu. It was coined by early nonviolence thinker Richard Gregg and later used by Gene Sharp.

Bondurant, Joan V. (1988). Conquest of Violence: The Gandhian Philosophy of Conflict (Rev. ed.). Princeton, N.J.: Princeton university press. Pp. 26–29.

Engler, Paul. (2001). Organizing in the Moment of the Whirlwind: The Anti-Globalization Movement, Satyagraha and Organizing Traditions (Master’s Thesis). Hampshire College, Amherst, MA.

Sharp, Gene. (2010). “Chapter 5: Exercising Power.” Pp. 29–38. in From Dictatorship to Democracy: A Conceptual Framework for Liberation (4th U.S. ed.). East Boston, MA: Albert Einstein Institution. Retrieved June 9, 2014 (http://www.aeinstein.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/FDTD.pdf)

Gregg, Richard B. (1935). “Chapter 2: Moral Jiu-Jitsu.” Pp. 43–51 in The Power of Nonviolence (2d rev.1960 ed.). New York: Schocken Books. Retrieved June 9, 2014 (http://www.nonviolenceunited.org/pdf/thepowerofnonviolence0206.pdf)

Plan Format & Worksheet

CANVAS. (2007). “Chapter 15: Plan Format.” Pp. 174–181 in CANVAS Core Curriculum: A Guide to Effective Nonviolent Struggle. Retrieved June 9, 2014 (http://www.canvasopedia.org/images/books/CANVAS-Core-Curriculum/CANVAS-Core-Curriculum-web.pdf)

Ladder of Engagement

Many organizing traditions and organizations incorporate the concept of a ladder of engagement. In our hybrid model, the ladder of engagement specifically includes online infrastructure, mass meetings/actions, mass initiation training, and voluntary infrastructure. The sources below explain each of these rungs on the ladder.

Engler, Paul. (2001). Organizing in the Moment of the Whirlwind: The Anti-Globalization Movement, Satyagraha and Organizing Traditions (Master’s Thesis). Hampshire College, Amherst, MA. Pp. 138–141.

Engler, Mark, & Engler, Paul. (2013, June 21). Click Here to Kick Glenn Beck Off the Air: Web Activism’s Big Wins-and What to Do Next. YES! Magazine. Retrieved June 9, 2014 (http://www.yesmagazine.org/issues/love-and-the-apocalypse/clicktivism)

Chatfield, LeRoy. How Did Cesar Do It?

Engler, Mark and Engler, Paul. (2010, June). Four ways of looking at an Aztec eagle: The contested legacy of Cesar Chavez and the United Farmworkers. The Sixties, 3:1, pp. 135 -142.

Team structures and decentralized organizational models

Falkvinge, Rick. (2013). Swarmwise. Charleston, NC: CreateSpace. Pp. 31–80, 180–220.

Jones, Van. (2012). “Chapter 5: Swarms.” Pp. 135–144 in Rebuild the Dream. New York: Nation Books.

Gladwell, Malcolm. (2005, September 12). The Cellular Church: How Rick Warren’s Congregation Grew. The New Yorker. Retrieved June 12, 2014 (http://www.newyorker.com/archive/2005/09/12/050912fa_fact_gladwell)

Gladwell, Malcolm. Purpose Driven Campaigning. Surry Hills, NSW: Makebelieve. Retrieved June 12, 2014 (http://www.makebelieve.me/resources/purpose-driven-campaigning.pdf)

Common Problems of the Integral Model

In this section, we focus on common problems originating from prefigurative and structure/control organizing cultures. Although prefigurative and structure are not always the source of these problems, they often correspond to these organizing cultures. For control problems, we included a wonderful essay by Stephen Lerner that explains in detail why unions often cannot do a hybrid model and how what they do is often counterproductive to creating momentum. We cite the work of Jonathan Matthew Smucker, who has a strong body of work on what we call cult or prefigurative problems. Todd Gitlin’s seminal work The Whole World is Watching explains how cult problems destroyed the American New Left in the 60’s and is a must-read on the dynamics between these problems, the mass media, and their effect on movements. The most common and challenging of all the problems is lack of nonviolent discipline. We include a few of the best articles about nonviolent discipline and fights in movement about the “diversity of tactics.”

Lerner, Stephen. (2011). A New Insurgency Can Only Arise Outside the Progressive and Labor Establishment. New Labor Forum, 20:3, pp. 9–13. Retrieved June 12, 2014 (http://www.globallabour.info/en/Lerner%20%28The%20New%20Insurgency%29.pdf)

Smucker, Jonathan Matthew. (2012). “Political Identity Paradox.” Pp. 254–255 in Beautiful Trouble: A Toolbox for Revolution, edited by A. Boyd and D. O. Mitchell. New York, NY: OR Books. Retrieved June 12, 2014 (http://beautifultrouble.org/theory/political-identity-paradox/)

Smucker, Jonathan Matthew. (2011, February 6). Evolutionary Logic of Collective Action (Series). Beyond The Choir. Retrieved June 12, 2014 (http://www.beyondthechoir.org/diary/13/evolutionary-logic-of-collective-action-series)

Gitlin, Todd. (1980). The Whole World Is Watching Mass Media in the Making and Unmaking of the New Left, . Berkeley: University of California Press. Ch. 5, 6, 8.

Duhamel, Philippe., & Martin, Dave. (2010, June 16). Nonviolence vs. Diversity of Tactics: The Case for Nonviolent Protest at the G8/G20 Summits.Greenpeace Canada. Retrieved June 12, 2014 (http://www.greenpeace.org/canada/en/Blog/nonviolence-vs-diversity-of-tactics-the-case-/blog/12075/)

Lakey, George. Diversity of Tactics and Democracy. Training for Change. Retrieved June 12, 2014 (http://new.trainingforchange.org/diversity_of_tactics)

Solnit, Rebecca. (2011, November 14). Throwing Out the Master’s Tools and Building a Better House: Thoughts on the Importance of Nonviolence in the Occupy Revolution. Common Dreams. Retrieved June 12, 2014 (https://www.commondreams.org/view/2011/11/14-8)