From Ground to Glass


Source: Rachel Singer of Vinepair
Source: B.E. Artziniega


Ten Spoon Vineyard and Winery. Source unknown.
Two examples of thriving natural vineyards. Source: Isabelle Legeron (left) and Uncorked in Italy (right)
Images (above and below) from Ten Spoon’s Community Harvest. Source: Rebekah Welch of The Missoulian
Ten Spoon’s Range Rider Montana Red


  • In 2010, 25 million pounds of pesticides were applied to conventionally-grown wine grapes in California. That was a 19% pesticide increase from the year before.
  • Conventionally-grown wine grapes received more pesticides than almonds, table grapes, tomatoes or strawberries. Insecticide use increased by 34% and acreage treated with sulfur, a fungicide, increased by 21%.
  • The Pesticide Action Network (PAN) classifies about a million pounds of those chemicals dispersed on wine grapes as “bad actors,” meaning that they are known or probable causes of cancer, are neurotoxins, or groundwater contaminants.
  • Roundup, a herbicide, is widely used on wine grapes in conventional farming. A recent study has linked Roundup with health dangers, including Parkinson’s, infertility, and cancers.
  • According to pesticide studies most often cited by scientists, pesticides such as myclobutanil and tetraconazole, unlike fungicides and other pesticides like chlorpyrifos, persist during the winemaking process.
  • Some pesticides such as azoxystrobin, dimethoate, pyrimethanil were extremely persistent, with residual concentrations in bottled wine similar to initial concentrations on the grapes.
Applying pesticides by helicopter. Source unknown.
Vineyard workers using copper sulfate in 1920s Hungary. Source unknown.
Babydoll sheep at work in a vineyard. Source: Reuters
Ten Spoon’s many certifications.
Ordinaire Wine Shop, Oakland, CA, specializing in natural wines. Source unknown.
Source: Wired Magazine
Common wine additives. Source: Wine Folly
Source: The Fix
Source: Harry Campbell


Source: Wine Folly
Wine industry concentration, by Phil Howard
Wine market share, by Phil Howard
The Apothic Red website
E&J Gallo’s Apothic Red tasting notes reflect the wine’s sugary appeal.
Apothic Red “Cellar” Tour
The Gallo Portfolio of Wines. Source: Wine Folly
Source: Practical Winery and Vineyard Journal
Source: United Farm Workers
A few of the books about the Gallo empire





University of Montana

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B.E. Artziniega

B.E. Artziniega

University of Montana

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