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The blood reserve in most cases faces shortages and insufficiency. With the rise in chronic diseases such as diabetes, cholesterol, HIV/AIDS blood need for surgeries and other transfusion purposes faces a major crisis. There are many blood groups but only group O is a universal donor; that is group O can donate blood to all other groups without the possibility of attack by blood antigens

Understanding blood group types and blood transfusion

There are four blood types — A, B, AB and O defined by sugar molecules. As mentioned above group O is a universal donor while group AB is…


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South Africa as a developing country faces a lot of challenges ranging from political challenges to increased rate of unemployment. Another challenge that’s crippling the country’s economy and decreases food security is the water crisis. The water crisis in South Africa has received a lot of attention due to the effect and the impacts it has on different sectors. The increase in water demand is due to various reasons such as population growth, urbanisation, rising incomes, irrigation expansion, non-renewable electricity generation and a growing manufacturing sector.

South Africa is considered one of the driest countries in the world with…

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Waste management has been a challenge in various countries for a long time. Waste management is vital for the elimination/reduction of pollution, environmental sustainability and protection of the ecosystem. There are different types of waste but our main concern is a municipal solid waste (MSW). This type of waste which is described as general waste due to its composition poses a minimum danger to human and animal life under proper management. Waste includes domestic, commercial, general industrial and builder’s rubble.

Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) involves various stages from the source until it is disposed of as can be seen…

Unending fields of corn and wheat
Yielding huge harvests that none can beat
Feeding millions of homes and hearth
Prairies are the wheat basket of the Earth.
- Kahkashan Basu

One of the dangerous yet silent problems gnawing at humanity right now is how we gorge down those vegetables spraypainted with a cocktail of what some would consider poisonous chemicals that are available in the nearby markets. To push these contaminated fruits and vegetables aside, people have adopted Terrace farming these days. But have you ever thought about going a step further and trying to cultivate fish on terraces?


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On August 12th 1985, the United Nations celebrated the International Youth Day underscoring how the youth have risen up to prominence as civilisation has progressed. India brimming with 1.3 billion residents, has the maximum share of the youth population in the world. The slice of the population pie that houses residents below the age of 25 spans more than half the total chart! The human resource potential that lies scrambled amongst the youth is insanely immense!

However, being a developing country means that India has to spar with challenges brought by limited and unequal access to resources and opportunities. In…

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Do you remember the time you sneaked a piece of chocolate for your grandmother? As she bites into the forbidden dessert she tells you, ‘My dear, I can’t help it! All day, every day I eat the same mushy trash. My heart craves for something different.’ This is the tale of many elders suffering from Diabetes mellitus. Patients suffering from diabetes have many dietary restrictions. They are told they can’t eat White flour, Pasta, sweetened beverages, Honey and dried fruit. To make it worse, restaurants do not cater to the needs of a diabetic patients. The restaurants are loaded with…

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From the small islands rich in wildlife with Darwin to the floors of temples with Ramanujan, most of our richest thoughts, theories and ideas have found their birthplace in the outside world. In India, our education systems were historically based on the same principle, with classes held in the open and each lesson or concept stemming from the seemingly countless sources of inspiration that reside in everything our planet has to offer. But unfortunately, all that has completely changed. In light of the recent examination results that came out, Krishna Kumar, former director of the NCERT correctly said “The trend…

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Indian civilization has always had deep ties with wildlife - our philosophies are rich with tales of several animals and our history is riddled with several movements stemming from a desire to protect the trees that provide us with air, food, and shade. Today India is at the heart of biodiversity research and is the quintessential location to study evolution and diversification. Jumping spiders are the most diverse and enthralling family within the order Araneae which constitutes of spiders. There are nearly 6000 species of jumping spiders described worldwide of which an unbelievably small number of species are documented from…

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The Mahabharata — One of the most complete, involved and passionate form of art that the world has ever borne witness to. The Mahabharata is the longest epic poem ever fathomed and can proudly wear the title of the longest poem ever to be written. Boasting about 1.8 million words in total, the Mahabharata is roughly ten times the length of the Iliad and the Odyssey combined. W. J. Johnson has compared the importance of the Mahabharata in the context of world civilization to that of the Bible, the works of William Shakespeare, the works of Homer, Greek drama, or…

Credit: Kurzgesagt

If you ask a small unbiased sample of human beings what they’re instantly drawn towards, it’d be safe to bet that you’d find a good number of answers that say babies and Wi-Fi. Who doesn’t love those a cute, cuddly, whiny little bald monsters in the making? Well, it’s becoming increasingly difficult to find a patch of land in our country that doesn’t have radio waves gushing through. The internet, mobile phones, and Wi-Fi services are finding their way into households like never before (Just ask the spokespersons for Jio or Airtel). While technology is bulldozing forward, the study of…

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