There are several types of BS; some are more information-resistant than others

We need to take a hard look at bullshit. It is now almost commonplace to say we are in a “post-truth” era. But this notion is not only, or even primarily, about the difference between truth and untruth. A proper appreciation of the distinction between lying and spinning, between deliberate misinformation and deliberate obfuscation, is necessary to fully grasp the current political and media landscape.

The liar knows the truth but wishes to misrepresent it; bullshit is different in an important way. The point of bullshit is to influence rather than misrepresent. The job of the marketing consultant, the trial…

Adrian Bardon

Professor of Philosophy at Wake Forest University and author of The Truth About Denial: Bias and Self-Deception in Science, Politics, and Religion

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