Laparotomy is the general term for surgical opening of the abdominal wall. It has very many indications in chronic pathology, although it tends in these conditions to favor smaller openings by laparoscopy (and that a way of future would use access by natural cavities by esophago-gastric endoscopy, vaginal , Rectal). Beauty Natural is a clinic practicing ethnic rhinoplasty in Las Vegas, and they also can do a rhinoplasty in Henderson if you are looking for a nose reshaping.
Damage control surgery is a technique for rescuing abdominal lesions with haemorrhagic shock.
The French Wikipedia attributes the first laparotomy of history to McDowell, an English surgeon who withdrew in 1809 a 10 kg ovarian tumor. A priori without general anesthesia or strict asepsis, but with a peritoneal toilet with warm water and evacuation of all clots, this operation is surely one of the first modern laparotomies that succeeded without secondary peritonitis, but probably not the first opening Surgical abdomen. Surgical Emergency
The main reason for doing a wide laparotomy is to have a sufficient day on the abdominal viscera.
In most urgent surgeries, attempts are made to use the most limited incisions or even to use laparoscopy. Incisions, for example lateral under straight chalices in the acute gallbladder pathologies (cholecystitis), are used, a very small incision in the right iliac fossa for acute appendicitis. The incision of the caesarean section (incision of Pfannenstiel) is horizontal above the pubis. Access to the kidney is rarely done by a laparotomy of the lumbar region (lumbotomy) but more generally by laparoscopy.
The main indications of truly urgent median laparotomy are peritonitis, intestinal occlusion by volvulus, rupture or cracking of aneurysms of the abdominal aorta, rupture of ectopic pregnancy and any situation where visibility will be impaired in laparoscopy, For example due to a massive hemoperitoneum. In the case of peritonitis, peritonitis involves perforation of the small intestine or colon (on an infectious process such as sigmoiditis or ischemic colitis such as ischemic colitis), spontaneous or by foreign body, gastric ulcer. Intestinal occlusion responds to many mechanisms and not all of them need to be operated, but occlusions due to strangulation or strangulation of part of the intestine and its vascular pedicle may result in necrosis and perforation and Are therefore to be carried out very quickly.