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While those factors are certainly in the mix, there are still plenty of situations in which men and women in the exact same jobs, working the exact same hours, experience a pay disparity — that is, the man is making more than the woman.

Take, for example, the new law in Iceland working to address such disparities:

Or the massive lawsuit against Walmart, in which women demonstrated a) that they were paid less than men for the same jobs, and b) that they were held back from higher-paying jobs because of their gender:

Or the internal research showing that Google pays its male employees more:

These are not isolated examples.