After the war, Mississippi re-joined the Union the way a petulant child, dragged by the arm, still tries to disobey his parents. The state refused to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment, formally abolishing slavery, until 2013. Instead, it passed other laws. It limited newly freed blacks’ ability to assemble, required them to show proof of employment, and made it illegal for them to rent farmland — essentially barring them from competing with plantation owners by growing crops. In the years immediately following the Civil War, black children were often taken from their parents and “apprenticed” to their former slave-owners, who paid little to no money for their labor.