The Complete Guide for Metabolomics Analysis Methods and Application
Metabolomics (Metabolomics) is a new system of biological technology developed by the post-gene era, aimed at the determination of all small organisms within the metabolites. Compared to Genomics, Transcriptomics and Proteomics, metabolomics directly and accurately reflects the current state of the organism and tell us what happens to the organism instead of predicting what may happen! Metabolomics includes untargeted metabolomics, targeted Metabolomics and next-generation target metabolomics according to their detection of metabolites.
It will scan all the small molecule ions (50Da ~ 1200Da) in the sample, and obtain the ion mass spectrum. The metabolites are identified by comparison with the database. The most commonly used analytical platform for untargeted metabolomics is GC-MS. However, GC-MS still is not perfect for metabolomics applications. Such as, GC-MS uses single mass spectrometry and lack of fragment ion information which will lead to many compounds can not be accurately Identification. Besides, there are other platforms can be applied for metabolites analysis: NMR platform and LC-Q-TOF. But untarget metabolomics can only provide the relative abundance of metabolites, not the absolute concentration of metabolites.
The traditional targeted metabolomics can only detect about 10 metabolites with the limitation of instrument conditions. But it has been raid developed with the improvement of instrument technology and become new bright spot for metobolomics. New targeted metabolomics can simultaneously quantify more than 1000 metabolites and reduce the time of post-processing data which can significantly improve the efficiency of metabolomics, making the biomarker screening process become more simple and reliable with less metabolic product verification steps.
Features for New Targeted Metobolomics:
1.More metabolites detection — Different from traditional LC-MS or LC-UV technology, with the new positive and negative conversion technology (Polarity Switch), new target metabolomics can scan up to 1000 metabolites in a period, greatly improving the efficiency of metabolic products at the same time detection.
2.Easy to identify metabolites — A metabolite will be identified by its parent ion, daughter ion, and Collision Energy in Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) technology. Two-step screening before getting into the detecor highly improve the accurancy of methobolites identification.
3.Easy to handle follow-up ioinformatics — New target metobolimics can analyze metabolites without the time-consuming database search and compound identification. And analysis results can be used for multiple comparative analysis, principal component analysis, metabolic pathway analysis and other biological large data processing directly.
The application of New Target Metobolomics shows out great potential in various fields:
A. Clinical Metabolomics: Compared with the normal omics, it can reveal the molecular mechanism of the disease with early diagnosis of blood and urine markers, intestinal and oral metabolism.
B. Pharmacometabolomics: not only can reveal the role of drug targets (efficacy studies, including traditional Chinese medicine), also provide rapid and comprehensive assessment of the toxicity of drugs to assess the interaction between drugs and patients (personalized pharmaceutical).
C. Environmental Metabolomics: It can be applied to reveal the impact of the environment on organisms, high concentrations of environmental pollutants, pollutant decomposition, migration, and explore the impact of pollutants on marine ecology.
D. Food Metabolomics: Food Nutritional Function Assessment; Food Safety Assessment; Antibiotics, Antibiotics, Pesticides and Insecticide Testing in Food.
E. Plant Metabolomics: Taking advantage of new targeted metabolomics can reveal the mechanism of plant disease and insect resistance, the mechanism of plant stress resistance (drought, salt, heavy metals, etc.), plant gene function, plant-microbial interaction Research, plant primary and secondary metabolic pathways.
F. Transplants Metabolomics: Use metabolomics to monitor the effect of surgery and transplantation.
As a newly developed discipline and an important part of systemic of biology following genomics and proteomics, metobolomics can determine the pathophysiological state of the organism, and it is possible to identify the associated biomarkers to provide a predictive platform for the associated warning signal. Compared with genomics and proteomics, metabolomics research focuses on the specificity of the relevant specific components, and ultimately involves the study of the commonality, characteristics and regularity of each metabolic component. Although metobolomics service is still in its start stage and the analysis methods also need to improve, we believe that metabonomics research will become a powerful means for efficient and accurate human disease diagnosis with the continuous improvement and optimization of its methods.