Adverbs of place give information about the place of an action. They are important as modifiers of other elements in the sentence.

The most commonly used are: here, there, downstairs, upstairs, inside, outside, indoors, outdoors, anywhere, abroad

For example:
— “Are you looking for a vegetarian sandwich? It’s here.” = We use here to express the position of something (at this point).



Adverbs of manner give information about the way (how) something is done, and they emphasise the action. They usually come after a verb and sometimes before it.

They are formed by adding -ly to the adjective (badly, exactly, loudly, nicely, politely…).

For example:
“Quick” ⇒ “He quickly kissed the girl on the cheek.” / “He very quickly kissed the girl on the cheek.” = We add -ly, and very to add extra emphasis to the action.

Some adverbs of manner are irregular and maintain the same form as adjectives (fast, well, hard, late, straight…).

For example:
“Straight” ⇒ “Walk straight, the Chinese restaurant is there.” = Straight remains the same.

NOTE: They can be used after words like very or too.



Adverbs are expressions that function as modifiers of other elements in the clause. They give more information. In most cases, we are able to make an adverb from an adjective by simply adding -ly.

For example:
“Beautiful” ⇒ “Beautifully“. = We add -ly at the end of the adjective.

There are some exceptions, depending on the ending of the adjectives.

For example:
— With suffix-y, we change -y to -i and add -ly: “Easy ⇒ “Easily“.
— With Consonant + -le, we change -e to -y: “Noble ⇒ “Nobly“.
— With suffix -ic, we add -ally: “Drastic ⇒ “Drastically“.

Some adverbs are irregular and there is no rule for their formation (fully, publicly, in a timely manner…).

For example:
“Publicly” ⇒ “Publicly”.



We use the adverb clause of result so that to highlight the consequence of an action or purpose. So that is used between clauses.

So that (as an adverbial clause of result) and so…that (as an adverb of degree) are two different structures but we can omit that in both cases.

The structure of so that is:
Clause 1 + so that + clause 2

The structure of so… that is:
Clause 1 + so + adjective/adverb + that + clause 2

For example:
— “I will save some money so that I can go on holiday.” = We…


We use one and ones to avoid repeating unnecessary words (a singular or plural countable noun).

  • One is used instead of singular countable nouns.
  • Ones is used instead of plural countable nouns.

For example:
— “There is a phone on the table. The black one is mine.” = Phone is a singular countable noun.
— “There are 3 phones on the table. The black ones are mine.” = Phones is a plural countable noun.




May is a type of auxiliary modal verb used to express the possibility for something to happen and also to ask for or give permission.


Its structure, in the affirmative form, is:
Subject + may + verb + …

  • I/You may work
  • He/She/It may work
  • We/You/They may work

For example:
It may snow this winter.”


Its structure, in the negative form, is:
Subject + may + not + verb + …

  • I/You may not work
  • He/She/It may not work
  • We/You/They may not work

For example:
It may not snow this winter.”


Its structure, in the interrogative form, is:
May + subject + verb + …?

  • May I/you work …?
  • May he/she/it work …?
  • May we/you/they work …?

For example:
May it snow this winter?


Should and Ought to

Both of these modal verbs have a very similar meaning and one can replace the other. They can be considered not to be as strong as must.

However, should is used much more often and it is less formal than ought to. Ought to is almost never used in interrogative and negative form.


Should is a type of auxiliary modal verb used to express obligation and duty through advice or recommendations.


Its structure, in the affirmative form, is:
Subject + should + verb + …

  • I/You should work
  • He/She/It should work
  • We/You/They should work

For example:


Indefinite pronouns do not refer to any specific person, thing or amount.


Something can be used as the subject or object of a sentence or question. We use it in singular, positive sentences.

  • something expresses an unspecified thing;

The structures are:
Verb/auxiliary verb + something + …
Something + verb/auxiliary verb + …

For example:
There is something in the fridge.” = Something is used to indicate the existence of an object or objects.


Nothing can be used as the subject or object of a sentence or question. …

Must and Have to


Must is a type of auxiliary modal verb used to express certainty, necessity or strong obligation which doesn’t come from outside, it’s a personal opinion. It also expresses prohibition in the negative form.


The structure is:
Subject + must + verb + …

  • I/You must work
  • He/She/It must work
  • We/You/They must work

For example:

I must visit my parents soon.” = The subject feels obligation.


The structure is:
Subject + must not + verb + …

  • I/You must not work
  • He/She/It must not work
  • We/You/They must not work

Short form of the negative form is: mustn’t.

Prepositions of Time, Place and Movement.

Prepositions don not stand alone, but rather act with other elements of the sentence to create the main sense. We use prepositions of time to locate an event in a specific moment or period, prepositions of place to express the location of something or someone and prepositions of movement to show movement from one place to another.

Prepositions of Time

The prepositions are small words that connect elements in a sentence. Prepositions of time are used to locate the event in a time context.

The main prepositions of time are:

  • At: for exact times, special holiday periods and weekend;
  • On: days of the…

Antonio Valencia

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