From a mathematical point of view, a quantum algorithm can be considered as an extreme case of positive excesses (leptokurtic), where the vertex acquires a deterministic (quantum) form, which is an order of magnitude higher than the peak of the average normal distribution.
All quantum technologies can be divided into two areas: the creation of computers operating at the quantum level and the creation of software and algorithms based on the Bose — Einstein and Fermi — Dirac quantum statistics. In 1998, the first experimental demonstration of the implementation of a quantum algorithm took place: a two-qubit quantum computer using the phenomenon of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR computer) calculated the Deutsch-Yozhi quantum algorithm.
And in 1999, Samuel L. Braunstein showed that the state of quantum entanglement does not exist in this or in any other NMR computer. However, it is the state of quantum entanglement that is a necessary condition for quantum acceleration of computations. That is, NMR computers have no advantage over conventional computers.
Today, government agencies are mainly engaged in quantum technologies: Europe has invested about 3 billion euros in this topic, China — 10 billion dollars, the US Congress is considering a project for 20 billion dollars.
Also in the “quantum” make investments and private companies. Google’s total nesting (NASDAQ: GOOGL, IBM (NYSE: IBM), Microsoft (NASDAQ: MSFT), Intel (NASDAQ: INTC) and Alibaba (NYSE: BABA) is about $ 0.5 billion.
There are also such projects in Russia, for example, the joint work of VEB Innovations and ANO Digital Economy on the creation of a 50-qubit quantum computer. There is a project of Rosatom, developed jointly with the Foundation for Advanced Studies and the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation, which in 2016 started creating a quantum computer with a system of 100 qubits for the needs of the Ministry of Defense.
The most promising direction in quantum technologies is the joint development of Vladan Vuletik from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Mikhail Lukin from Harvard University, using the properties of two or three quantum-related photons (see polariton).