Our Only Goal Will Be the Western Shore
Module Creator: Zoe Stamatopoulou
October 13, 2017 8:00–12:00a.m.
The regard for and treatment of immigrants in modern America and ancient Greece
> Immigration is one of the most problematic issues in American politics right now
>administration has promised tighter border controls, including the building of a wall between USA and Mexico, and has increased policing in the interior of the country (immigration arrests rose 32.6 percent in the first weeks of the Trump administration)
>administration has also demonstrated its intention to limit legal immigration (Reforming American Immigration for Strong Employment Act envisions a ‘merit-based’ immigration system that reduces the number of new legal immigrants permitted in the USA
Objective: This module focuses on social construct (always changing) of one’s “philos” (near and dear) and what is foreign (xenos, xenophobia) and the experiences of foreign residents from multiple views (Athenian tragedy, speeches in court, philosophy)
Part One: Stories of origin, identity, and citizenship
Listening for Leadership One
Imagine you are running for office either as president of a country, governor of a state, or mayor of a city and part of your job will be to develop a position on how to treat immigrants, particularly whether to admit them into your community and with what status. Consider the following questions as part of your preparation:
- Do you have any personal experience working with immigrants or as an immigrant that would lend credibility to any position you have on immigration? Explain. If you do not have this experience, what would your plan be for establishing your credibility?
> Being that I do not personally have any experience working with immigrants or as an immigrant myself, in order to establish my credibility I would first explain that although not being an immigrant myself, I live in a community that is heavily populated by immigrants and I also have family that are immigrants. Many of these people are my friends, neighbors, family, and everyday hard working people with the same drive as an American-born citizen who pursue the American Dream.
- If voters pressed you to identify three criteria for determining whether to admit immigrants into the community, what would your three criteria be? If voters asked you whether you agree with President Trump’s most recent immigration criteria for “applicants who can speak English, financially support themselves and their families, and demonstrate skills that can contribute to the US economy,” what would your response be?
> My three criteria for determining whether to admit immigrants into a community would be:
- Must be able to comprehend and speak English
- Must be able to work and show proof of prior work experience
- Must communicate a “check-in” of successful establishment in new area, every 6 months for 3 years.
I agree with Trump’s immigration criteria.
- What three programs would you promise to put into place to ensure that immigrants would transition more smoothly into the community?
- Work Start Program- enforces the inclusion of immigrants in all work places, provides job opportunities
- Housing program- enforces the eligibility of immigrants in communities to be able to apply for housing, provides housing opportunities
- Credit-Enforcing program- enforces the eligibility of immigrants in communities to establish credit, provides economical status
(a) Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War 1.2–1.3, c. 410 BCE (translation by C.F. Smith)
> Greek (hellas) (the better of the land) was inhabitible, ever-changning, successible to invasion, any land that was rich was fought over.
>Attica was on not rich yet thin soil and richness, compared to other parts of Hellas, in Hellas men were driven out by war or seiditon and migrted to Athens, to become citizens.
>hellenes not extablished as that name until after trojan war
(b) Euripides, Ion 258–78, 289–306, 1569–1605, c. 414 BCE (translation by Kovacs)
>Ion questions Cruesa of her origin, she states that she is the daughter of Erechtheus from Athens
>Erectheus sacrificed his other daughters for the sake of his country
>Cruesa’s husband is a foreigner, Xuthus, spring from Aeolus and Zeus
> As a dowry of war from conquering Euboea, he married her
>Athena gives Cruesa her son, and claims him as royal as a descendant of Erectheus,
>he is to have four sons, 1. Geleon, 2. Hopletes, 3. Argades, 4. Aigikores and their descendents will dwell in the Cyc;ades and coastal cities of the mainland, Asia and Europe, called the Ionians
> Cruesa will have children together, Dorus: will cause the city of Doria to be glorified in Pelops’ land and Achaeus: ruler of Rhium
© Plato, Menexenus 237b-c, c. 380 BCE (translation by Bury). Socrates claims to have heard a funerary oration by Aspasia (Pericles’ partner and an immigrant from Miletus) in honor of fallen Athenian soldiers, which he proceeds to quote:
>the fathers of these men were not immigrants, they were sons of the land that originated from, natives sprung from the land and to have died in that land
(d) Plutarch, Life of Pericles Ch.37, c. 100 CE (translation by Perrin)
>Pericles asked for a suspension of his own created law(concerning children born out of wedlock), that the name and lineage of his house might not altogether expire through lack of succession
>After having children out of wedlock himself, he proposed a law that only those should be reckoned Athenians whose parents were Athenian
> When grains were to be divided amongst citizens, those affected by Pericles’ law against legitimacy of foreigners from birth were prosecuted and sold into slavery by informants
>Pericles suffered his retributions, having to enroll his son
October 14, 2017 8:00–11:00p.m.
In the passages below identify all narratives of origins can you find. In what ways do these origin stories define group (civic) identity? How inclusive / exclusive are they? How are they assessed in each passage and to what effect?
>Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War- Atticans were inhabited by the same people always because of the lack of richness in their land, men of Hellas were driven to become citizens of Athens because of the quarrel of inavasion of their rich land
> Euripedes, Ion- Cruesa’s husband a foreigner, claimed to be a descendant of Xuthus, spring from Aeolus and Zeus, As a dowry of war from conquering Euboea, he married her. Athena gives Cruesa her son, and claims him as royal as a descendant of Erectheus, and then he is to have four sons, 1. Geleon, 2. Hopletes, 3. Argades, 4. Aigikores and their descendents will dwell in the Cyclades and coastal cities of the mainland, Asia and Europe, called the Ionians (all of descent of Erectheus)
>Plato, Menexenus- the fathers of these men were not immigrants because they were sons of the land that originated from, natives sprung from the land and to have died in that land of origin
>Plutarch, Life of Pericles- Pericles, after having children out of wedlock himself, he proposed a law that only those should be reckoned Athenians whose parents were Athenian
- Can you think of some origin stories that shape your own national identity? Do these narratives have anything in common with the ancient ones in the way(s) they draw the line between who “belongs” and who does not?
> Growing up, although not knowing much about it, my parents always made it a point to recognize creole heritage, from my father’s side, from New Orleans, Louisiana. Although I do not know the orginal origin of my ancestry, just as in “Plato, Menexenus,” my father’s side that was born, raised, and laid to rest in the city of New orleans were Creole, just as that of every person born in the city to be yet not Creole, but of some foreign heritage that was not purely American or African American. So, no, the relations between the ancient narrative does not show a link of belonging or not.
- According to passage (d), what were some advantages and disadvantages of stricter citizenship laws in fifth-century Athens? What advantages and disadvantages to stricter/looser laws in the United States do you foresee?
> Advantages: Citizens were able to have more goods to consume amongst those who were not born out wedlock and therefore not foreign
>Disadvantages- Pericles’ own son was born out of weldock, and to be exlcuded or prosecuted for his law, foreigners were enslaved,
>In the USA, building a law will surely foresee a rebellious response in maybe in violent acts, however, it will shift the economy to the liking of certain people to benenfit
- From these passages below identify one story or example that you think might best help you connect with voters to explain your immigration policy
Thucydides, History of the Pelop. War- The USA, like Athens is welcoming place of non-xenophobia, in which all that come from a place that lacks their need and wants for their family and success, are to come and be able to live with lawful yet accessible advantage of becoming a citizen.
Part Two: Foreigners and resident aliens as parts of the community
Listening for Leadership Two
October 15, 2017 8:00–10:00p.m. (hours completed after reading the speeches and excerpts)
Imagine now that you have been elected to your position of mayor/governor/president and are now authorized to deal with problems of immigration direction. This will include helping immigrants integrate into the community and resolving issues between immigrants and citizens. To succeed in this role you will need to understand very well what the issues are. Consider the following questions.
- What do immigrants contribute to a community? Should their inclusion in the community be based solely on whether the community profits from them? If not, what should it be based on? When is it reasonable to fear immigrants? What can citizens do to determine whether their fear of immigrants is valid? What gives rise to tensions between immigrants and citizens? In what ways do citizens tend to dehumanize immigrants?
>Immigrants contribute work ethic and success of economics in America. their inclusion should be based solely on whther they can be profited from, but they should be sought after to contribute to a good balance of upkeep. It is only reasonable to fear immigrants in a true terrorist situation, where there interests and intentions are to harm citizens. Citizens can only determine that their fear of immigrants is valid once a valid threat is posed and proves to be intentional. Racism, discrimination, and the fear of being able to cohabitate and expect someone different from another place with different cultures and experiences gives rise to tension between immigrants and citizens. Also, the leader of the country in that place can create a void between the two, imposing laws and opinions that will support others to create a divide. Citizens dehumanize immigrants in a way of having to do with seeing their orgin as a richer, better place, as if they should be honored ot be able to thrive here, and seeing there origin as not as precious or of equal or any value in comparison.
- What is your understanding of the word “status” as it applies to a member of a community? Based on passages (a)-(d) below, what was the status of non-Athenian residents in classical Athens? What did they contribute to the city-state of Athens financially, intellectually, culturally, militarily, or otherwise?
- How does gender inform the experiences of male and female immigrants in these passages?
- Let’s read the excerpt of Euripides’ Medea (e) as the quarrel of a dysfunctional bicultural couple: Jason is from Iolkos, a Greek city-state, and Medea is from Colchis, a non-Greek city on the coast of the Black Sea. What attitudes are hurting the marriage? What advice would you give?