The science behind why we can see the history of the universe. (Can also be read here: https://karenacai.com/a-look-back-in-time/)

I recently went on a tour of the incredibly impressive James Webb Space Telescope, which is planned to be deployed into space in 2021 [1]. During my tour, the tour guide mentioned how we would be able to see farther back in time with this telescope. This perplexed me. **How can we see the past??**

I brought this question up to some physicists that I know, and they gave me a super intuitive explanation that I thought would be fun to share!

In order to understand this phenomena, let’s begin first with unraveling what happens when a thunderstorm occurs. …

This tutorial is two-fold: the first part gives a more gentle introduction about Bayesian estimation, and the second part dives into the specifics of the particle filtering algorithm, which is the Monte Carlo method of performing Bayesian estimation.

Have you ever stopped to wonder: how do scientists predict the weather? The weather, among other things, is a really random process that seems like it would be impossible to predict in the future. What mathematical tools allows scientists to do this seemingly impossible task?

Scientists could *just* use a mathematical model that is derived from the laws of physics (i.e. …

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