The history of the world has been filled with countless culture-defining developments. From innovative ideas and clever inventions to discoveries of new places and things in the world itself, our history has been clearly shaped and defined by creative ways of thinking and social developments both large and small. While some of these innovative inventions and discoveries have been life-changing, others have taken up small spaces of time, yet all have — in some way — defined the way humankind lives, works, and connects with one another. …


The Vigenère Cipher

The Vigenère Cipher, created in the 16th century, uses an element not found in a Caesar Cipher: a secret key. The creator of the code picks any word or combination of letters at random to be the key, for example, “DOG.” The keyword chosen will then be matched to the plaintext message that you want to encrypt, for example, “ATTACK.” You can see that the keyword “dog” is shorter than the word “attack” by three letters. In this case, repeat your key until it matches the number of letters in your plaintext message. …


Caesar Box
The “Caesar Box,” or “Caesar Cipher,” is one of the earliest known ciphers. Developed around 100 BC, it was used by Julius Caesar to send secret messages to his generals in the field. In the event that one of his messages got intercepted, his opponent could not read them. This obviously gave him a great strategic advantage. So, what was the code?

Caesar shifted each letter of his message three letters to the right to produce what could be called the ciphertext. The ciphertext is what the enemy would see instead of the true message. So, for example…

Cangea

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