HTTP — HyperText Transfer Protocol is what we use to transfer data to each other through the internet. The data is transferred in a request/response format. Where the client requests data and the server distributes data to the client or clients. There is also a more secure form of transferring data between clients and servers. This is known has HTTPS or HyperText Protocol Secure, it is managed by a security protocol such as SSH or secure shell. SSH works by creating public and private key pairs on the server and client, They provide access by sharing each others public keys.
The string of data used to request information form the server is called a URL, or Uniform Resource Locator. This consists of the root domain, which would be something like google.com and the fully qualified domain name or FQDN which adds the www. identifier to the root domain. The URL also consists of a port, which identifies which port that the client can connect to the server to view a specific web page. The Uniform Resource Identifier or URI, identifies which web page is being requested and defaults to the root page if left blank. There are also additional pieces of the URL such as query strings and hashes. Query strings is like a search function to find information, it is attached to the URL with a question mark as the identifier for the query. The hash identifier is used as an anchor to refer to a specific section in the web page.
Servers & Clients — Servers and clients are needed in order to get and distribute information on the internet. Servers are used to distribute data, while clients are used to receive the data. Servers are used to help secure data, where they can block out users if they are not authenticated or if they don’t have sufficient access to view certain files. There are different types of HTTP methods. Theres GET, which a client sends to a server to get the web page. POST is when the client has something to submit. PUT is to insert changes, and DELETE is to delete specified resource. There are other methods as well such as HEAD, which is the same as GET but only returns headers without the document body. There is OPTIONS which returns the HTTP methods that the server supports. There is also CONNECT which establishes a data transfer protocol between the client and server.