Thanks for your reply, Andy! I do understand being skeptical. And, judging from your reply, I am almost certain that I am ignorant about the details regarding US schools. I was surprised, shocked and saddened after reading your characterization of the current state of things. I really do believe that a complete shift from a teacher-centred to learner-centred approach would make a big difference in education. Things like marks, siloed curriculums, standardized tests, and grade levels are all teacher-centred philosophies — they all give a consistent message to students that they are not doing learning for themselves, rather, they are ‘doing the learning’ for someone (the teacher) or something (the system) else. But how does a learner-centred classroom teacher ensure the conditions for learning are in place and that learning is actually taking place? I think there are many ways that can be done or, at least begun, within existing structures. In any case, I love this discussion and I wish could start my career over again but know what I know now… I know I may not be 100% right but at least I have relearned and shifted practice to a student-centred approach that seems to works with learners over the long term.