没有中国的世界
A World Without China

文:同新亞 譯:Simon the Cyrenian

當今中國挑戰世界主流秩序的姿態,已經變得越來越明顯和激進,無論是在行動上,還是在意識形態或民意上,都是如此。這種挑戰者的意識形態,在官方的語境里主要表現為共產主義式的,即共產主義世界對資本主義世界的挑戰,簡而言之,它是冷戰式的,現在好像也已經有“新冷戰”這種叫法了;而在民間,這種挑戰者的意識形態主要表現為民族主義式的,而這種民族主義式的意識形態又可以細分為二:其一是想象中的古老中華帝國重建地區霸權和對現有的世界政治格局的替代性挑戰,無論是南海問題,台灣問題還是中國與日本及韓國等的衝突,根源上的意識形態都屬此列,這是帝國主義式的;其二是想象中的古老的中華文明,對西方文明為主的其他文明發起的挑戰,這是民族主義式的。這兩種意識形態水乳交融,互相構成了對方的合理性。

Today, China’s defiant posture against the world’s dominant order has been increasingly evident and aggressive, which can be told from its behaviors, ideology, and public opinion. On the one hand, this ideology of a challenger is manifested as Communism in official context, which is the world of Communism against the world of Capitalism. In a nutshell, it is a cold-war concept. It appears that some have already called it the New Cold War. On the other hand, in public opinion the ideology is demonstrated as Nationalism, which can be further divided into two parts. Firstly, the rebirth of the imagined ancient Chinese Empire that should pick up its lost glory and supremacy in East Asia and replace the current world order, which is the imperialistic part the generates the present regional issues and conflicts, be it in South China Sea, Taiwan, Japan, or Korea. Secondly, the challenge initiated by the imagined ancient Chinese Civilization against the others led by the West, which is the nationalistic part. These two parts perfectly integrates with each other, one part being the just cause of the other.

在中方的眼裡,只有戰爭才是解決問題的唯一方法,其他的方法都不過是在拖延時間,而不是在解決問題。「韜光養晦」這個說法,直白地解釋出來就是這個意思。中方對戰爭唯一的顧慮就是,自己沒有充分的戰爭實力,或者顧慮戰爭帶來的代價,而不是他們想要放棄戰爭本身。畢竟除了戰爭之外,無論是以上提到的幾種意識形態中的無論哪一種,都沒有解決的出路。當然,如果西方人投降,變成共產主義國家,然後加入中國主導的世界秩序,並在文明上漢化,也是一種選擇,不過我猜沒有人會願意選擇這個選項。

From where China stands, war is the only solution and all other methods are but camouflages to confuse its enemies. The Chinese idiom 「Lay low and bide the time」 is the perfect description of the above-mentioned strategy. China’s only concern about war is its lack of force or the huge cost behind, instead of the war itself. After all, no other ways except war can provide solutions for the aforementioned ideology. Of course, the problems can be solved peacefully if the West will surrender, join in the Communist team, become a minor part of the world order dominated by China, and eventually become Chinese. However, presumably it should be an option that few will choose.

共產主義的衰落與民族主義(中華帝國主義)的崛起

The Decline of Communism and the Rise of Nationalism (Chinese Imperialism)

中國的統治者是一個列寧主義政黨,這樣的政黨擁有俄羅斯套娃式的政治結構,即以一群人為核心,組成一個以堅定的共產主義及共產主義聖戰為目標的最內圍,其他的人都是被這個最內圍層層統戰的外圍。理論上來說,即使是國家機器及國企本身,都不過是被核心領導層統戰的。黨本身也是一個層層統戰的俄羅斯套娃,而不是一個共同體。雖然在表面上看起來,這樣的政黨像是一個普通的專制政黨,但實際上確是完全不同的。隨著中國現任國家主席習近平在政治上重回1978年以前的作風,細心的人都可以明顯地看出列寧式政黨的運作特點。他與幾個最親近的人組成了自己的政治小圈子,並用這個小圈子滲透了國家機器和軍隊,他的決策和統治,在很大程度上繞過了國家機器本身。在這種政治秩序里,如果核心領導層願意,他們可以為了統戰的目的而欺騙所有人。也就是說,他們可以用統戰民族主義意識形態的方式,來完成共產主義的聖戰目標。

The true current ruler of China is a Marxism-Leninism Communist party that is structured in a system similar to that of a matryoshka doll. A core group with its faith in Communism and Communist Holy War combined with the surrounding layer-by-layer peripheral organizations and people utilized as tools. Technically, even the state apparatus and the state-owned enterprises are the peripheral parts led by the core. The Party itself is but a multi-layered matryoshka doll that the inner circle uses the outer circle, not a real community. It appears to be like other common authoritative counterparts, yet they are completely different in essence. With Xi Jinpin’s coming to power and his attempts to restore the pre-1978 political style, anyone careful enough can easily smell the stench and discern the marks of a Marxism-Leninism party. Xi and his close partners consist the small but key clique that spread its tentacles into the government and the army, which allows Xi to mostly bypass the state apparatus and rule at his will. With such a political system, the core group can utilize and deceive all other people for their own goals if they wish to. That is to say, they can utilize the nationalism to fulfill their Communist Holy War.

習近平的核心小團體 | Xi’s Innermost Circle

七十年代末,隨著中蘇交惡、蘇聯崛起和冷戰,中美雙方開始走向聯合抗蘇的現實主義合作。在毛澤東死之前,這個道路就已經被固定了,中方也已經沒有回頭的餘地。對中國的經濟援助和外資注入,在這個階段就已經開始了。毛死的時候,中國的經濟已經瀕臨崩潰,加上中蘇關係的進一步惡化,中國急需加深與以美國為首的西方資本主義世界的合作,以換取政治和經濟上的利益。同時也是為了更好的融入西方秩序,或者說為了更容易被西方人接受,中國共產黨在政治和經濟制度上逐步進行了一些資本主義式的改革。在改革的過程中,中共也嘗到了融入西方經濟秩序所帶來的巨大好處,這些好處帶來的誘惑,進一步推動中共進行更深層次的改革。

By the end of 1970s, with the worsened relationship between China and the Soviet Union, the challenges by Soviet against the world, and the Cold War, China and the U.S. began their realistic cooperation against the Soviet Union. This path had already been set and fixed before the death of Mao and there was no turning back for China. This was where the West aids and the western foreign investment started. By the time of Mao’s death, China’s economy was already crumbling and the relationship between Soviet and China kept worsening, which added up to China’s urgent need to strengthen its cooperation with the West led by the U.S. so as to gain enough political and economic benefits to survive. Meanwhile, to better fit in with the Western order, or more accurately, to better disguise itself and to be accepted by the West, CPC (Communist Party of China) made some gradual and Capitalist reforms in politics and economy. During the reform, CPC also had the chance to taste the great sweetness brought by the Western order, which tempted it to further its reform.

在1978年之前,中共的意識形態塑造主要是共產主義式的,而不是民族主義式的。當時流行的口號是「建設共產主義」,「打倒美帝,解放受壓迫的美國無產階級」,「(用共產主義)解放全人類」等等。在開始融入西方資本主義秩序之後,中共出於偽裝的目的,淡化了這種意識形態,而代之以民族主義的意識形態。因為當今世界的主流玩法是“民族國家”,所以塑造民族主義的意識形態,顯然更容易為西方所接受。中國民族主義意識形態在民間的抬頭就是從這時開始的。

1978年前的典型中國宣傳海報 | A Typical Pre-1978 Chinese Propaganda Poster

Before 1978, CPC’s ideology mainly appeared to be Communism instead of Nationalism. The popular slogans by then were 「Build up Communism」, 「Defeat the Imperialistic America and free the oppressed American proletariats」, and 「Free Humankind (with Communism)」, etc. When CPC began to make its way into the West order of Capitalism, it disguised itself with Nationalism instead of Communism, because Nation-States are the dominant players of the world and are more easily accepted by the West. From then on, Chinese Nationalism started rising.

「中華帝國」意識形態是怎樣形成的

How was the Ideology of 「Chinese Empire」 Formed?

中共塑造的民族主義意識形態,本質上是一種帝國主義,我們不妨稱之為中華帝國主義。它延續了中華民國以來的民族主義構建基調,即以傳統的東亞帝國主義敘事和中華優越論為核心,融合了西方極左翼近代史觀。在一個接受了這種意識形態的中國人的腦子里,「華夏文明」是一個在以河南省為中心的「中原」獨立起源的古老文明,具有五千年的連貫歷史,是世界四大文明古國之一。「中國」歷史上的各朝代都領先西方,尤其是“秦、漢、唐”三個帝國足以稱霸世界。在近代之前中國一直全方位領先世界,近代之後才開始在某些方面(主要是技術上)落後於歐洲,但在其他方面依然勝過西方。在這種意識形態里,想象的族群血統邊界、文化邊界和帝國邊界形成了一個不可分割且互相支撐的整體。血統上的中國人就必須是文化上的中國人,以及傳統東亞帝國敘事里的中國人。華夏文化的偉大,證明瞭東亞帝國的偉大,東亞帝國的偉大,也反過來證明瞭文明的偉大。由「華夏人」或「漢人」連續建立的東亞帝國也證明瞭「華夏」血統的優越。中國人意識形態里帝國的「偉大」,指的是帝國的侵略、征服、殺戮、強姦、殖民、同化和稱霸,建立朝貢體系。中國人狂熱地熱愛這一切,贊美這一切,徬彿這些就是他們值得用一生去追求的最高真理。帝國敘事背後血淋淋的罪惡,他們不僅看的清清楚楚,而且視之為最美好的東西,只要這些血淋淋的罪惡被冠以「中華」或「民族」之名。中華文明優越論,帝國視角的「榮耀史」,已經成為了每一個中國人自身的虛榮和民族自尊心的最大來源,與他們的人格和自我認同融為一體。

星辰大海 | We Are the Future Global Empire: A Hugely Popular Meme in China

The Nationalism created by CPC is in its very essence a kind of imperialism, which is why we can call it Chinese Imperialism. It has inherited the structure and narratives of the Nationalism in the Republic of China (KMT) period, whose cores are the narrative of the traditional East Asian Imperialism and the superiority of Chinese Civilization, combined with the Western ultra-left perspectives on modern history. A typical Chinese believer of such a Nationalism will undoubtfully accept the following opinions: Chinese civilization is an independently developed ancient civilization originated from the nowadays Henan province of China, the so called 「Zhongyuan」 (central plain) region. It has a continued history of at least 5,000 years and is one of the so called 「Four Ancient Civilizations」. Before modern period, China had always been the most advanced and powerful country on Earth at any rate, especially during the times of the three mighty dynasties: Qin, Han, and Tang. China started to fall behind the West in some aspects (especially techniques) in modern period, yet was still the supreme one in terms of other matters when compared with the West. When we review the structure of the above-mentioned nationalism, it can be told that the imagined boundaries of race/bloodline, culture, and empire have supported one another and together formed an inalienable whole. A Chinese by race is definitely a Chinese by culture, a Chinese in the sense of traditional East Asian imperialistic context. The greatness of Chinese Civilization has proven the greatness of Chinese Empire, and vice versa. The greatness of the Chinese Empire established by 「Chinese」 or 「Han」 people has also proven the superiority of Chinese race/bloodline. Such a 「greatness」 actually means the intruding, conquering, massacring, raping, colonizing, assimilating, and dominating the surrounding peoples and the establishment of the Imperial Chinese Tributary System. Typical Chinese nationalists will zealously love and praise such a 「greatness」, as if it is some kind of absolute truth that should be pursued with everything they have. They can clearly see the bloody evil behind the imperial narratives, yet they still cherish and worship it, as long as these abominations are conducted in the name of the glory of Chinese Civilization. This superiority of Chinese Civilization, together with the 「Glorious History」 under the imperialistic perspective, have already become the strongest power engines that boost the vanity and national pride of every true Chinese, integrating seamlessly with their characters and self-identification.

意淫是美好的,現實是殘酷的。事實上,中國人所想象出來的「中華文明優越論」不僅是荒謬自大的,而且與考古學和分子人類學所揭示的實際情況完全顛倒。

However, it is easy to mentally masturbate, yet the truth is cruel. In fact, the theory of the superiority of Chinese Civilization imagined by Chinese is not only absurd and arrogant, but also the completely opposite story against the revelations brought by Archeology and Molecular Anthropology.

現中華人民共和國範圍內的東亞土地,大致可分為兩部分。第一部分是位於北方的歐亞草原地區,它最南部的範圍包括今中國的新疆省、甘肅省、青海省、寧夏回族自治區、陝西省北部、山西省北部、河北省北部、內蒙古自治區和東北三省。這片廣大的草原地區,佔據著中國北方土地的大部分,而它又與中亞和歐洲地區的草原相連,形成了一個緊密的整體。從新石器時代開始,人類文明的第一個中心出現在兩河流域地區,很多重要農作物的馴化及農業技術、彩陶、宗教神話、青銅器等均發源於此,然後向其他地方擴散。中國的彩陶文明是世界「彩陶之路」的產物,只不過是兩河流域彩陶文化的一個分支。中國的青銅文明和鐵器文明亦是世界「青銅之路」和「鐵器之路」的產物。由於文明由西到東的傳播會先到達歐亞草原,再由歐亞草原傳至東亞的農耕區域,所以「中原」地區的文明不僅晚於西亞和中亞,而且晚於歐亞草原。被「華夏」視角視為「狄戎之地」的草原地區,其文明要比「中原」地區領先的多。

The East Asian regions covered by the current territory of PRC (People’s Republic of China) can approximately be divided into two sections. First, the Eurasia Steppe in the north, whose southern part includes nowadays Xinjiang Province, Gansu Province, Qinghai Province, the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, northern part of Shaanxi Province, northern part of Shanxi Province, northern part of Hebei Province, the Inner Mongolia, and the three Northeastern provinces (Manchuria). The vast steppe covers most of the land of Northern China and connects with the grassland of Central Asia and Europe, forming a solid entity. In the Neolithic Age, the first center of human civilization emerged in the Mesopotamia, where many important crops were tamed for the first time, agricultural techniques were invented, colored pottery was created, many religions and myths were generated, and bronze wares were first forged. All these fruits of civilization were then spread to other parts of the world. The Chinese ancient civilizations named under the colored pottery were but the products of the worldwide spread of colored pottery, a branch of the Mesopotamia culture of colored pottery. The same narrative can be applied to the Chinese ancient civilizations named under bronze wares and iron wares. Since the fire of civilization was actually passed from west to east, from Mesopotamia to Eurasia steppe, then to the agricultural regions of East Asia, the Zhongyuan civilization started not only far later than the Western and Central Asia, but even also later than the Eurasia steppe. The Eurasia steppe that was seen as the 「Land of Barbarians」 under the Chinese perspective actually had been more advanced than the Zhongyuan region for a long period of time.

鐵器技術的大致傳播路線极具代表性 | An Iconic Example: The Spread of Blacksmithing Technology

由於「中原」地區更適合農耕,所以對草原上的農牧民族有很大的吸引力。他們會因為某些原因的刺激,比如草原環境的變化,一批一批的由草原地區進入「中原」農耕區,然後變成了徹底的農耕族群。若干代之後,他們再被草原上新來到中原的農牧或遊牧族群打敗。這個過程就是從公元前5000年到清帝國之間東亞人口的大致流動情況。

The so called Zhongyuan region was indeed a more comfortable and stable agricultural place to dwell in, and thus quite attractive to the half-farmer nomads in the steppe. Due to certain reasons, e.g. the climate and environmental changes of the steppe, these half-farmer nomads would enter into the Zhongyuan agricultural region from the steppe one batch after another, and became pure agricultural ethnic groups. Some generations later, the old comers would be defeated by the new comers from the steppe. This compact model can roughly depict the demographic flow of East Asia continent from 5000 B.C. to the Qing Dynasty of China.

也就是說,所謂的「華夏」本身其實是「蠻夷」。其實即使在遠古神話里,「中華」的始祖炎黃兩個部落也是來自於「蠻夷之地」,華夏概念的建立者「周」部落也來自於「蠻夷之地」。「中原」之所以相對草原表現出更大的文明體量,其實是因為穩定的農業社會相對草原更有利於社會財富的積累。但在文明的核心 — — 技術上,「中原」則長期落後於草原。

Summarily, the so called noble 「Chinese」 were in nature 「Barbarians」 they have been always despising. Even in the ancient myths that laid the very foundation of Chinese, their ancestors were literally two tribes, Yan and Huang, from the so called 「Land of Barbarians」. Plus, the true establisher of the concept of China, the Zhou tribe, was also from the 「Land of Barbarians」. Zhongyuan region appeared to be more prosperous and civilized than the steppe only because its geographical conditions allowed it to form a more stable agricultural society that was more advantageous in wealth accumulation than the steppe. However, in terms of one of the keys of civilization, technology, Zhongyuan region was in effect behind the steppe region for quite a long time.

真相是,中國文明不是獨立起源的,也沒有四大文明古國這個偽概念。華夏文明不僅從沒有領先世界,而且從一開始就落後於「西方」,且華夏文明的源頭也是從「西方」來的,在它發展成為一個獨立的文明體系之後,在三千年內一直受到「西方」文明的輸入和影響,這種輸入和影響是它不斷變化和繁榮的主要原因。東亞歷史上的各帝國也是由不同的族群,而不是同一個族群建立的,只不過後來的族群都會冒名頂替之前的華夏文明,從而塑造出自己的執政合法性。東亞歷史上也從沒有過哪怕一個足以稱霸世界的帝國。漢人民族構建里的基礎敘事,都不過是自大而顛倒的想象。

秦之後的歷代「中國」,本質上是內亞征服者建立的一个个東亞行省。圖中即歷代征服/統治者集團,分別為:1.(唐)武川鮮卑 2.(宋)晉陽沙陀 3.(明)波斯教會 4.(清)滿蒙武士
Post-Qin Dynasty Chinese “Empires” are, essentially, East Asian provinces set up by Inner Asian conquerors.The conquerors shown in the above pictures (From left to right, top to bottom) are: 1. The Wuchuan Sinbei Group, founder of Tang Dynasty; 2. The Jinyang Shatuo Group of West Turkic origin, founder of Song Dynasty; 3. The White Lotus Society, a heretical cult derived from Persian Manichean Church, founder of Ming Dynasty, “Ming” literally means “The Light”, one of the two prime symbols in Manicheism;4. Manchurian & Mongolian Warriors, founder of Qing Dynasty.

The truth is, Chinese Civilization was never developed independently and there was no such a pseudo concept as 「the Four Ancient Civilizations」. Not only has it never been the most advanced entity on Earth, but also never surpassed its western counterparts from the very beginning. It is, in fact, from the 「West」. Before it could proudly proclaim itself to be an independent and unique civilization, it had been deeply influenced by the western civilizations for 3,000 years, continually receiving fruits from the west, which was the root cause of its changes and prosperity. Moreover, empires in different stages of East Asian history were not established by a single ethnic group. They appeared the same just because the late comers tried to disguise themselves as the embodiment of the former 「Chinese Civilization」 so as to gain legitimacy. There was not even one mighty empire that once powerful enough to rule the world in the history of East Asia. The basic narratives that help construct the Han Nationality are but haughty and twisted imaginations.

中華帝國意識形態是中國永遠無法融入世界秩序的原因

Chinese Imperialism Will Stop China from Integrating with the Current World Order

之所以這種「輝煌古文明」的想象變成了中國民族意識形態的重要支撐,是因它為中華帝國的意識形態提供了潛在的合理性。它把作為它的「道成肉身」的中華帝國抬高到了足以與整個西方文明範圍內的所有國家(而不是其中的哪一個)平起平坐,甚至還要高一等的地位,這為帝國意識形態里的「尊嚴」提供了道義上的支撐。一個民族國家可以出於現實的需要加入到任何一種對自己有利的秩序里,對民族國家來說這談不上恥辱不恥辱,但對帝國來說不是。帝國只能以領袖和霸主的身份來建立起自己的秩序,只有在這樣的身份里它才能保全自己的尊嚴,而加入任何一個其他秩序,對帝國來說都是無法接受的恥辱。對想象出來的、古老偉大的中華文明來說,加入到另外一種文明所建立的秩序里,也是無法接受的恥辱。因為尊嚴的概念對民族國家和帝國並不同。對民族國家來說 只有當名譽受到了實際性的攻擊或利益受到了實際性的損害才可能算尊嚴受到了侮辱;而對帝國來說,哪怕它加入到一個對自己有利的秩序里去,只要它沒有在這個秩序裡面充當最高的領導地位,它的尊嚴就受到侮辱了,假如它充當了秩序的首領,只要這個秩序里有人不服從它,它就感覺自己受到侮辱了;對想象出來的中華文明來說,只要這個體系不是由它自己建立的,哪怕它在充當了領導者,它也覺得受到了侮辱。所以,只要中華帝國和想象的華夏文明這兩張意識形態存在,中國就永遠無法融入到現有的世界體系里去,而且它還一定會試圖重建自己的秩序 從而成為現有世界秩序的挑戰者。

成為唯一主宰,中國才會滿足 | China intends to be the one true ruler of the world, and will not settle for anything less

This imagination of being the 「Glorious Ancient Civilization」 becomes one of the key pillars supporting Chinese Nationalism only because it can provide the hidden legitimacy for Chinese Imperialism. The twisted imagination has made its incarnation, the Chinese Empire, not only the equal of all other countries (not any specific one) on Earth (especially the ones in the West), but even the supreme one, offering ethical support for the imperial 「pride」. A normal nation state can integrate with any beneficial order out of realistic concerns. It will never be a 「pride」 issue for a common nation state. However, not so for a supreme empire. A supreme empire, for the Chinese Imperialism believers, must establish its own world order as a dominant overlord, which is the only identity that can safeguard its glory, pride, and interest. Integrating with any other world order established and led by other nations or civilizations is an unacceptable insult to the supreme empire. The same applies to the imagined 「noble」 and 「great」 Chinese Empire, who will be severely insulted when being integrated with another world order led by any other civilization. Apparently, the concept of dignity is different for an ordinary nation state, who would feel being insulted only when its reputation or interest is substantially harmed. On the contrary, a supreme empire’s 「dignity」 is much more fragile: it will be insulted in a beneficial order as long as it is not the supreme leader; it will be insulted as the supreme leader when there is any disobedient voice within the order. The same goes the imagined Chinese Civilization, who will be easily insulted in a world order established by others even as the supreme leader. Therefore, so long as the twisted yet inborn imaginations of Chinese Civilization and Empire exist, China will never be able to integrate with the existing world order, always trying to 「rebuild」 its own set of orders and thus becoming the challenger of the current one.

不僅如此,這兩種意識形態也意味著,中國人永遠也沒有辦法接受現代文明,因為「現代性」這個詞語里的「現代」幾乎等同於「西方」,接受「西方」文明對「偉大的華夏文明」來說是無法忍受的恥辱,按中國人的說法這叫「崇洋媚外」。或許看到這裡有人會辯解道:「你看現在的中國人不也接受了西方文明的很多東西麼,怎麼能說在現有的民族意識形態里中國人永遠無法西化?」這種話純粹屬於攪渾水。現在的中國人所謂的的「西化」,大多是一些無關緊要的皮毛,他們精神上和靈魂里的東西,依然是中國式的,而且永遠也不會改變。隨著「中華帝國」國力的強大帶來的民族主義的膨脹,已經接受的這一小部分西化還會開倒車再倒回去。只要中國人的民族意識形態還是現在這個構成,倒車就還會一遍一遍的開。就像一條用繩子栓在木樁上的狗,往前走兩步又總會轉回去。像日本「脫亞入歐」那樣的事情,在中國現有的民族意識形態里永遠都不可能發生,東亞大陸及居住於其上的十幾億人永遠無法以「中國人」的身份走入現代化並融入文明世界。

「師夷长技以制夷」| “Learn from the devilish barbarians so that we can one day counter them”

Besides, these imaginations also mean that Chinese will never be able to truly accept modern civilization, because the concept of 「modern」 is almost the same as the 「West」 and accepting the 「Western Civilization」 is an unbearable shame for the 「great Chinese Civilization」, which is called 「Currying the Foreigners」 in Chinese saying. Some readers may want to argue at this point that Chinese have already taken in many western elements and it is wrong to say that Chinese can never integrate with the West with present ideologies. Such sayings can only confuse the truth. The western elements Chinese now take in are mostly peripheral techniques. Their bones and souls remain Chinese and will never change. With the strengthening power of 「Chinese Empire」 and the following rise of Chinese Nationalism, the western elements will be washed away again, and will be easily washed away again and again with the current ideologies within. It is just like a dog tied to a stake, always turning back after a few steps forward. Japan’s 「De-Asianization」 will never happen to China. The 1.3 billion people living in the East Asia continent can never be truly modernized and integrated into the modern world as 「Chinese」.

台灣 香港與「統一」:中華帝國意識形態的突出表現

Taiwan, Hong Kong, and 「Unification」: The Conspicuous Embodiment of Chinese Imperialism

香港與台灣問題,一直是中國與國際體系衝突的焦點。中國官方和民間都視台灣為中華人民共和國的固有領土,而無視台灣作為一個獨立國家的事實。無論官方和民間,都在叫囂「統一」台灣。「統一」這個詞也被用在其他的地方,比如「維護新疆的統一」,「維護西藏的統一」等等。「統一」可以說是一個深入中國人靈魂的詞語,每個中國人都把「統一」視作「愛國」標準的底線。但其實,統一這個詞及其所代表的意識形態,是一種法西斯式的帝國主義意識形態,它恰恰是中華帝國意識形態的突出表現之一。

Hong Kong and Taiwan issues have long been the focuses of conflicts between China and the international community. Both of the Chinese government and common Chinese take it for granted that Taiwan is the inherent territory of PRC, ignoring the fact that Taiwan is in effect an independent state. Both of the Chinese government and common Chinese are clamoring for the 「unification」 of Taiwan. The same word 「unification」 has also been applied to other regions, like 「safeguard the unification of Xinjiang」 and 「safeguard the unification of Tibet」, etc. 「Unification」 can be seen as a key word for Chinese spirit, being the bottom line of 「Patriotism」 for every Chinese. Essentially, the word 「unification」 and the mindsets behind are the avatars of a kind of Fascist Imperialism, one of the conspicuous embodiments of Chinese Imperialism.

“Arrest the Hong Kong Separatists”

「統一」一詞,包含兩種邏輯。其一,凡是在中華文明體系內的族群和土地,必須屬於同一個族群和同一個政權。對台灣、香港和大陸所有「華夏」文明圈土地的統一意識就屬於這種邏輯。事實上,這種邏輯混淆了文化體系與民族國家之間的分界。事實上,同一個文化圈內可以產生出無數個民族,因為每一個大的文化圈都由無數個次級文化組成,這個大文化圈里,也有無數個按照不同的次級文化和共同利益劃分出的不同的族群,其中的每一個都符合現代民族的標準。就像歐洲人同屬一個泛西方文化圈,但歐洲卻有無數個不同的民族一樣;其二,凡是「中華帝國」政權佔有的土地,就絕對不能分離,哪怕它們並不屬於華夏文明圈。對西藏,新疆和各少數民族地區的統一訴求屬於此類,中國人常掛在嘴邊的一句話就是「哪裡敢分裂,就留地不留人」。這種「統一」意識形態,是一種典型的帝國主義式的、以尋求土地擴張為目的的法西斯式意識形態,它是「中華帝國」意識形態的典型寫照,在古代的帝國,對於帝國的皇帝來說,帝國的土地和臣民都是只屬於自己的私有財產,帝國土地的失去是不可忍受的財產損失。一旦發生事故,皇帝就要用武力保衛自己的財產。在這種帝國意識民族主義化之後,全體「漢人」都把自己想象成了「中華帝國」的主人,他們把自己代入到了皇帝的角色,所以才會形成上文所描述的「中華帝國主義」意識形態。

The word 「unification」 contains two sets of logics. First, all the ethnic groups and regions within the greater Chinese Civilization system must be unified under one ethnicity and one regime. The 「unification」 of Hong Kong, Taiwan, and all other regions being included in the greater Chinese circle follows such a set of logics. As a matter of fact, it confuses the boundary between greater cultural system and nation state. A greater cultural system can generate a large number of nation states, because every greater cultural system is consisted of many different sub-cultures and countless various groups divided by different sub-cultures and common interests. Each group like this is capable of establishing its own nation state. For example, the whole Europe can be seen as a greater Western Civilization system, while so many European nation states coexist. Second, every region once possessed by the 「Chinese Empire」 can never be alienated, even if the region is not part of the greater Chinese circle. The 「unification」 of Xinjiang, Tibet, and other regions where heterogeneous people have long dwelled goes to the second set of logics. As a frequent Chinese saying goes, 「wherever dares to seek independence, we will keep the land instead of the people」. Such a mindset of 「unification」 is a typical epitome of the fascist imperialism that longs for the endless expansion of territory, the typical embodiment of Chinese Imperialism. In the ancient Chinese empires, the land and people are all private possessions of the emperor. The loss of empire territory equals the intolerable loss of private possessions for the emperor, who will resort to brute force when anything bad happened to his treasure. When such a mindset was integrated into the modern Chinese nationalism, all 「Han」 people imagine themselves to be the rulers of 「Chinese Empire」, replacing the ancient emperor, and thus form the aforementioned Chinese Imperialism.

“Hack down the Taiwan Separatists”

中國的民族意識形態與現代政治的規則 — — — 即憲政、自由和民主,也是相衝突的。可以預見的基本事實是,假設中國完成了真正的民主化,那麼西藏、新疆等少數民族地區肯定會以公投的形式離開中國,成立自己的民族國家。不僅如此,隨著資本主義商品經濟所帶來的基於地方語言的地方文化的空前繁榮,以及地方經濟的巨大差異,不同地域間的共同認同將會越來越低,隨著時間的推移,「漢族」這個群體也會分崩離析,變成一系列的新民族,它們會繼承少數民族的腳步,公投離開中國。這是中國如今的民族意識形態所無法忍受的。所以為了防止這種情況,中國就一定不會實現真正的民主和言論自由,因為中國本身就是中央集權專制的產物,專制才有中國,民主就沒有中國了。

Chinese Nationalism also contradicts the pillars of modern politics, which are constitutionalism, freedom, and democracy. A foreseeable basic fact is that regions like Tibet and Xinjiang will surely leave China through referendum and establish their own nation states should China truly achieved democracy. Moreover, with the booming of local cultures, which are based on local languages, brought by Capitalism, the huge difference among regional economies will be revealed, the common identity among different regions will fade, and the concept of the so called 「Han」 people will also gradually dissolve into a range of new national identities, who will then follow the paths of other ethnic groups like Uyghur and Tibetan to establish their own nation states. Such a result is insufferable to the current Chinese Nationalism. To prevent this from happening, China will never reach true democracy and freedom. China itself is the product of totalitarian centralism and democracy means the death of China.

与它令人厌恶的表象不同,这两句话实际上非常诚恳和真实 | “Only the Communist Party can save and develop China”, although many consider this to be merely a piece of disgustingly wide-spread political slogan, it is in fact astonishingly honest, sober,astute and truthful.

「中國」或「漢族」的民族意識形態,是一種徹頭徹尾的法西斯式的帝國主義意識形態。它的存在不僅會讓東亞大陸永遠處於野蠻和專制,同時也會給世界秩序和世界和平帶來巨大的威脅,因為這種意識形態的終點一定會指向侵略擴張和發動戰爭。中華帝國越強大,它的民族主義就越可能失控,中國人也就越有可能把自己和無辜的其他國家帶入戰爭的痛苦深淵里去。有中國的東亞,永遠是一個愚昧專制的,無法現代化和融入世界秩序的東亞,有中國的世界,永遠是一個充滿威脅和挑戰的不安定的世界。

The Nationalism of 「China」, or 「Han」 people, in summary, is completely a kind of fascist imperialism. Its very existence will not only plague East Asia continent with barbarianism and totalitarianism forever, but also pose formidable threats to the world order and peace, because such a kind of imperialism will definitely point to invasion and war. The more powerful this 「Chinese Empire」 becomes, the more likely this Nationalism will lose control, the more possible that Chinese will bring themselves and other innocent peoples and countries into the abyss of war. An East Asia with China will always be a barbaric and totalitarian East Asia that can never be modernized and integrated into the current world order. A world with China will always be an unstable world filled with threats and challenges.

所以現在我們來談談沒有中國的世界。

Therefore, let’s talk about a world without China.

沒有中國的世界

A World without China

在中國民族主義的意識形態里,「中國」這個詞有兩種身份,它既代表一種文化,又代表一個國家,二者之間相互構成對方的合理性。但事實上,「中國文化」本身就是帝國為了塑造侵略征服的合理性而塑造的偽概念。「中國文明」不過是帝國境內各個文明的統稱。

For Chinese Nationalism, the word 「China」 is a binary construction, denoting a type of culture as well as a country, both of which become the corner stone for each other. Yet, in fact, 「Chinese Culture」 is but a pseudo-concept created by the empire to justify their invasion and coercive assimilation. The concept of 「Chinese Civilization」 is no more than a vague umbrella name for the diverse civilizations within the empire’s territory.

東亞大陸從一開始出現文明,就形成了很多個不同的文明圈和不同的文化族群,「中原文化」只是其中之一。雖然除「中原文明」之外的其他文明都受到了中原文明不同程度的影響,但這並不能說明它們就應該屬於中原文化的一部分或一個分支。因為世界上沒有任何一個文明是獨立起源的,文明的傳播和分化是人類歷史上最普遍平常的一件事情。每一種文明在其成型之前和之後都會受到其他文化的重要影響,包括中原文化本身也是西亞和中亞文明通過歐亞草原影響的產物,或者說「中原文明」不過是從草原文化中分化出來的一支。那些創造了「中原文明」的人大部分也是來自於草原的。如果中華帝國主義者認為非中原地區的文化,因為受到了中原文化的影響,所以必須把它視為中原文化的一個分支,並且以此作為帝國「統一」的理由。那我們也可以按照這個邏輯,認為中華文明只不過是中西亞文明的一個分支,所以應該由西亞的穆斯林來「統一」東亞。

Ever since the first civilization emerged on the continent of East Asia, a variety of civilization circles and ethnic groups had come into shape. The so called 「Zhongyuan」 culture was but one of them. Despite the fact that other surrounding civilizations had all been affected by 「Zhongyuan」 in a way, one can never say that these surrounding civilizations are naturally parts of, or branches of the 「Zhongyuan」 Civilization. No known civilization in the world is established under complete isolation. The dissemination and division of civilization is one of the most common things in human history. Every civilization will be somehow affected by other cultures before and after it comes into shape. E.g. 「Zhongyuan」 culture itself is a product heavily influenced by the West and Middle Asia through the Eurasia Steppe. One can even say that 「Zhongyuan Civilization」 is but a branch of the Steppe cultures, because most of the forebears of 「Zhongyuan Civilization」 actually came from the Steppe. If Chinese Imperialists can justify their coercive unification and assimilation of the non-Zhongyuan areas that had been influenced by 「Zhongyuan Civilization」, so can one sees Chinese Civilization as a branch of the West and Middle Asia civilizations and believes that it is the West Asian Muslims’ mission to 「unify」 the whole East Asia.

按照「統一」愛好者的邏輯,最有資格統一中國的勢力就是它 | According to China’s imperialistic logic, this will be the most fitting power to “Unify” China

這種看待文化和歷史的視角,是一種帝國主義的視角;這種邏輯是一種無恥的、赤裸裸的、法西斯式的帝國主義邏輯,它充分的暴露了中國民族主義的帝國主義本質。

Such a perspective on culture and history is completely of imperialism: a kind of shameless, overt, and fascist imperial logic, thoroughly revealing the imperialistic nature of Chinese Nationalism.

而在帝國主義的視角之外,我們看到的是不一樣的東亞史:東亞大陸上一開始行成的各個不同的文化和族群,到了商周帝國時期形成了不同的國家。它們本來有自己的歷史,文化和生活,但秦帝國的法西斯式侵略殖民摧毀了這一切,使得它們開始陷入了被帝國殖民 破壞和強制同化的悲慘命運。儘管這個過程已經斷斷續續的持續了兩千年,但地方族群的自我認同卻並沒有被徹底抹去,地方文化和語言也保持了自己獨特的風貌,每到中央帝國崩潰的時候,它們又會爭取獨立,重新構建古老的自己,只不過當帝國再次蹂躪殖民它們之後,又會抹黑掉它們獨立時期的歷史,編造它們渴望被「統一」的假象。它們就像俄國殖民下的芬蘭,只要統一的帝國強權崩潰,它們隨時可以行成自己的民族和國家,恢復自己古老而獨特的真正面貌。

芬蘭宣佈從俄國獨立

However, if such an imperialistic perspective can be abandoned, one can see a different history of East Asia. In Shang and Zhou periods, these divergent civilizations and ethnic groups emerged on the East Asia continent had formed their own countries. They all had their own history, culture, and ways of life. Tragically, the fascist invasion and colonization of Qin Empire ruined them, plunging them into the lamentable fate of imperial colonization and coercive assimilation. However, though the tragedy had been going on intermittently for the past 2,000 years, the identifications of local ethnic groups in different conquered regions of the empire have not been wiped out. Their local cultures and languages have still doggedly retained their special features. In the course of East Asian history, these people would always try to seize the opportunity to gain freedom and independence, restoring themselves whenever the monstrous Chinese Empire collapsed. Yet when the empire rose and devoured them again, these records of freedom and independence would all be blotted out to forge the illusion that they were happy to be 「unified」. Like Finland under the rule of Russia, they can still swiftly restore their nations when the coercively united empire collapses, living proudly in their ancient and unique ways.

在一個沒有中國的世界,中華帝國的意識形態不復存在。古老的正義得以伸張。失去了古老帝國的偶像包袱,新生的東亞諸國可以欣然拋棄古老優越文明的自大幻想,熱情的擁抱現代文明,並融入世界秩序。東亞大陸上將會產生一系列像日本一樣脫亞入歐的偉大國家。

In a world without China, Chinese Imperialism will no longer exist. The ancient justice will be done. Without the evil burden of the ancient empire, the new-born East Asian states can happily say goodbye to the absurd idea of 「supreme ancient civilization」, passionately embrace modern civilization, and integrate with the current world order. A number of true modern countries like modern Japan will eventually rise on the continent of East Asia.

脫亞入歐的典範——日本 | Japan’s “De-Asianization” Movement

現在,邪惡的匪共專制政權已經行將就木,就像一百年前的情況一樣,東亞大陸將會遍布武裝割據勢力,各地獨立建國也會是必然會發生的事情。這一次,你依然會選擇打著帝國榮耀的旗號,以統一之名選擇支持挑起戰爭和殺戮,把東亞大陸又一次帶入到專制和毀滅的輪回里嗎?我想任何一個心懷良知和正義的人都不會。中華帝國這個惡魔和它的肉體中國,已經在東亞大陸肆虐了兩千年,現在該是送它下地獄的時候了。沒有了中國的東亞,將會是一個嶄新的東亞,沒有了中國的世界,將會是一個更美好的新世界。現在,建設這個新世界的時機已經臨近,而建設這個新世界的使命,正等待著每一個正義的人去共同擔起。

Now, the vile Communist totalitarian regime is coming to its end. The story of a century ago will again occur on East Asia, where independent armed regimes and states spread across the whole land. This time, will you still support Total Warfare and massacres in the name of unification to 「honor the empire」, plunging the East Asia continent again into the endless circle of autocracy and destruction? I believe that none with conscience and justice within will do this. The Diablo, Chinese Empire, and its incarnation, the very concept of 「China」, have been havocking the land for over 2,000 years, and it is time to send them all to hell where they belong. An East Asia without China will be a brand-new East Asia, a world without China will be a more wonderful world. Now, the time of building such a brave new world is dawning, and the mission is upon us all.

全新的東亞 更好的世界 | A Brand-New East Asia and a More Wonderful World