满洲利亚的语言与血缘（The Language and Cognation of Manchuria）
文：纳喇·巴海 (Bahai Nara)
Ask: The name Manchurians is derived from “Manju” which originally means the people called by “Manju” by Hong Taiji in first half of the 17th century. But now you Manchurians seem all turned to speak Mandarin Chinese and many of you have non-Manchu lineage. Why do you still call yourselves Manchurians and love this nation?
Answer:Good question. First of all, we should know that na-tions are dynamic, rather than unchanging, and self-identity plays an essential role.
Language: Mandarin as the heritage of ethnic har-mony
Chinese languages nowadays is lacking of political terms with explicit nuances, which is maybe due to in-tentional blurring of concepts by the Communist regime.
Manchurians are on the whole called “The North-Esterners” officially in Mainland China because by add-ing a directional adjective, this strategy could achieve the effect of weakening the national boundary con-sciousness between Manchuria and China. This effort has not been successful at all.
Manchurians admit that most of themselves don’t speak Manchu language , they had been speaking it till one hundred years ago. Languages of a nation is also in constant flux, if you send a British person to Shake-speare’s Britain, he would not understand what he hears either.
The changes of languages in Manchuria can be sum-marized into three stages. Firstly, Manchu language had absolute dominance. Then Mandarin was formed as a creole language and gradually applied to wider occa-sions. Then “Concord Language” (协和语), a new creole language, was formed and became nearly distinct due to political reasons.
语言变化经历了三个阶段：第一阶段通行满语；第二阶段，形成克里奥尔语 — — 曼达琳语；第三阶段出现协和语，这个阶段被强行中断。
In 17th century before The Conquering of China, Manchu was the only language spoken by Manchurians. There were some Han Chinese immigrated from North-ern China into Manchuria, and they were soon assimilat-ed and began to speak Manchu.
In Qing Dynasty, when China Proper was under the rule of Manchus, the “Manchu Language and Mounted Archery” (国语骑射) policy was adopted by the emper-or when the ruler saw that Manchus were turning into Chinese speakers and loosing mounted archery in a wor-rying speed. Just like that British expats kept speaking English rather than Hindi or Tamil in the British India Colonies In today’s Manchuria, the Manchu language is still alive in some villages.
Mandarin was formed as a creole language at the be-ginning of the Qing Dynasty. As a native language, Mandarin is spoken exclusively in Manchuria and Bei-jing. Being a distinctive Chinese language, it has critical differences from other Chinese languages such as Wu Chinese and Xiang Chinese: Clear distinguishing of stress and unstressed syllables such like stress-timed languages (e.g. English RP) which is a common feature for Tungusic languages (to which Manchu belong) and other Altaic languages. Frequent “Ar” sound（儿化）is also regarded as “strange” by speakers of China Proper. Not to mention numerous onomatopoeic words which resemble Manchu counterparts and Manchu loan words.
These features are not seen in most Chinese languages except other creole Chinese languages in Xinjiang, Gan-su and Qinghai which are under the influence of Turkish and Mongolian languages.
Today’s “Putonghua”, a modified version of Manda-rin, became the official language of PRC due to histori-cal reasons. Vivid expressions of Mandarin has been de-leted for the convenience of the Chinese people. Manda-rin（Also known as 东北话 “The language of the North-Easterners”）is regarded as a hilarious dialect suitable only for stand-up comedies by the Chinese peo-ple, but the language is accepted as cultural heritage by Manchurians.
The replacement of Manchu by Mandarin at the last turn of the century, with flooding in of immigrants, is the result of ethnic harmony. The major language spo-ken by the first generation of immigrants were Northern Chinese dialects and they chose or were assimilated to speak Mandarin because of linguistic similarity. The Mandarin, at the beginning of the 20th century, had much more exotic loan words than today. Sources in-clude Russian, Japanese, Korean, languages of other large immigrant groups (The second generation of them also spoke fluent Mandarin). Just as the Concord Lan-guage (see below).
For an Instance, MSG is still called 味素 by Manchu-rians which derived from the Japanese word”味の素”. Native Manchurians at that time use Mandarin only for the sake of convenience, because then in Manchuria, all other cultures such as food, lifestyle and customs were already highly similar. If a new immigrant refused to turn to any Manchurian cultures, native Manchurians would use more Manchu language to show their resolu-tion against Sinicization or Russianization, which was happening at the same time in Beijing and Outer Man-churia.
As Mandarin became more accepted by immigrants and native Manchurians, new creole languages were formed in Japanese leased areas in Southern Manchuria (Dalian/Dairen) and Russian immigrant-dominated areas of Northern Manchuria (Harbin and Heihe). These cre-ole languages were lacking of rigid grammatical parti-cles ( as in Japanese) and confusing inflections (as in Russian) and was phonetically still Mandarin-Manchu.
The speech sequence that object is before the verb (in linguistic term ”SVO”) was a common feature of Man-chu, Mongolian, Japanese and Korean. After Manchu-kuo was established, a more common new creole lan-guage was formed on the basis of previous Mandarin-based Japanese-and-Russian-influenced creole lan-guages, which was later called Concord Language (“The Language of Harmony”). In Xinjing (now Changchun) Concord Language was even more widely spoken than Mandarin, the official language of Manchukuo. Howev-er, since the fall of Manchuria in 1945 and forced Sini-cization actions done by the Communist regime, Con-cord Language was forbidden and gradually disap-peared.But old people who speak a certain level of Con-cord Language can still be found twenty year ago or even ten years ago.
19世纪末以来，又在日本租界和俄国人居多的地方出现了新的克里奥尔语：南满洲e.g. 大连日语语法简化，汉语词汇多。北满的克里奥尔语大量俄语词混杂分析型语法。满洲国建国后，语言融合进一步增强，出现了以曼达琳语音为基础、语法接近满语和日语（SVO 语序），吸收大量外来语借词，被称为协和语。最流行的地方是新京（长春），在哈尔滨、奉天（沈阳/Mukden）等俄日裔居民多的地方也开始扩展和流行。但随着满洲被支共吞并，协和语被禁止，慢慢消失。但二十年前甚至十多年前还有一些老人能按协和语方式讲话，夹杂日语等外来词。
An example of the Concord Language：
“Mumen enengi kewasi nomimale, laohaohe le.”
Literal translation: We today kvass drank, very good.
Mandarin：姆们 今儿 格瓦斯 喝了，老好了。
English: Today we drank kvwass which was very good.
Languages of Manchuria today is a mixture of Manda-rin and languages spoken by “Minor ethnic groups” like the Koreans and the Russians, a historical result shaped by PRC. A much greater linguistic diversity and open-ness than China Proper is still seen in Manchuria.
今天所见的满洲内语言，是支共强行推动语言单一化，排外的结果，不符合满洲语言发展应有结果。但今天的满洲是支那内语言非常丰富和宽容的地方，残留的朝鲜裔多数能讲朝鲜语，满洲人对使用外语心态开放，曼达琳语仍然在凝聚人心 — — 外国人比在支那本部更容易掌握本地语言。
Cognation: American of East Asia
Chauvinistic people tend to define a land’s ownership by blood lineage in the narrow sense just like what Rus-sia did in Eastern Ukraine. Some Chinese people advo-cate that Hong Kong, Taiwan and Manchurian people must follow the ideology and lifestyle of Han Chinese, because there are so many China Proper inhabitants liv-ing in these lands who has even no love or sense of iden-tity for their lands.
According to a recent research (張華克：《舊滿洲檔》詞彙解析法的建立/Establishment of the Lexical Analysis on“Jiu Manzhou Dang), the original meaning of Manchu (“Manju”) from which the name Manchuria come from is “We, the people”. Just like the United States of America, Manchuria accepts people from around the world and elevates them, in turn, herself was elevated by new bloods and cultures. Immigrants are like the food, by consumption of food the human body becomes stronger, but the body remains the same, only stronger..
How can you regard a fluent English-speaking entre-preneur who defends the American constitution but does not have the same skin color as the founding fathers as non-American? Similar cases can be found in Manchu-ria. We are Manchurians not only because we have been long lived in this land but also by commonly accepted Manchurian values. In the Manchukuo period, Manchu-rians（满洲人）were defined as “ The people who lives in Manchuria”. Another concept, “Manchurian Nation-als” (满洲国民), were emphasized and widely accepted and it reefers to the educated, civilized, Manchuria-loving Manchurian residents. Ethnic harmony together with extensive absorption of modern civilization were symbols of the new Manchurian state. As said in the 1933 Anthem, “For now, may we assimilate with the world; for the future, may we follow the ways of the Heaven and Earth.”（近之则于世界同化，远之则与天地同流。）
At the beginning of 20th century, in Japanese leased area, Japanese descents in elementary schools wrote “I am not Japanese (national).” in Kana.
America today is still based on values advocated by the founding fathers. Similarly, the cornerstone of Man-churia has remained the same as that of the Manchu people hundreds of years ago. Today when notorious children trafficking cases happen in China Proper now and again, such crime is unimaginable for Manchurians. When the 2008 Chinese milk scandal caused fear among millions of mothers and fathers, the milk produced in Manchuria proved surprisingly safe and suitable for in-fants. Even Manchurian mafias seldom target children and women. Manchu people have never imposed physi-cal restrictions, such as foot-binding, up their women, because they led a life as hunters. Humane treatment on people, especially youngsters and females used to be re-ferred by Western missionary witnesses as something close to chivalry. Later, in 20th century, descendants of the noble savage had got their chance to build a modern civilization. They chose a complete independence from China Proper with the help of Japan where Communism surged. Communism was deplorable seen by traditional Manchurian culture.
After the fall of Manchukuo, Han Chinese was defined by PRC authorities as the ethnic majority in Manchuria. The ethnic group census in PRC is done in a complete Soviet and Chinese chauvinist way, with the ill intention of blurring the actual national boundaries. Many Man-chu people changed their ethnicity into “Han Chinese” out of the fear of persecution, many other have been forced to do the same. A special group of Chinese im-migrants after 1947 were appointed as main officers of the government. Many Manchurian families lost their genealogy because their grandparents were killed by the communists for being local “landlords”during the bloody Land Revolution in 1950. Many memories were lost.
In the eyes of the author Michael Meyer, Manchurians are still showing “Minnesota nice”. After many years of Sinalization.
The writers of this article heard from old people that in late 1940s when Manchuria was to be completely occu-pied by Communists, some students in a big city com-mitted suicide by jumping off the building in order to pass away together with their beloved nation. Their teacher also committed suicide after all his students jumped. The ethnicities of them include Manchus, Chi-nese, Japanese, Koreans and Russians (maybe some Poles/Ukrainians). This story is hovering in our minds reminding us how tragic the history was and how glori-ous it must be for Manchuria to have raised such patriot-ic children.
We strongly believe that justice will be done and after the restoration of freedom, Manchuria will be shining in East Asia again.
God bless Manchuria !
Golmin šanggiyan alin
The Holy Mountain of