满洲利亚的语言与血缘(The Language and Cognation of Manchuria)

文:纳喇·巴海 (Bahai Nara)

Ask: The name Manchurians is derived from “Manju” which originally means the people called by “Manju” by Hong Taiji in first half of the 17th century. But now you Manchurians seem all turned to speak Mandarin Chinese and many of you have non-Manchu lineage. Why do you still call yourselves Manchurians and love this nation?

问:满洲人指的是满清成立时和之前被皇太极统称为“满洲”的女真人,你们都说汉话了,而且血统也不是之前的通古斯满洲,为什么还自称满洲人?

Answer:Good question. First of all, we should know that na-tions are dynamic, rather than unchanging, and self-identity plays an essential role.

提问提到了语言和血统两大问题。首先民族是动态的,不是一成不变的,认同在其中起到关键作用。

Language: Mandarin as the heritage of ethnic har-mony
语言:作为民族协和遗产的曼达琳语

Chinese languages nowadays is lacking of political terms with explicit nuances, which is maybe due to in-tentional blurring of concepts by the Communist regime.

当今的汉语缺乏对许多关键政治概念的严密区分,这可能是共产政权刻意模糊概念造成的。

Manchurians are on the whole called “The North-Esterners” officially in Mainland China because by add-ing a directional adjective, this strategy could achieve the effect of weakening the national boundary con-sciousness between Manchuria and China. This effort has not been successful at all.

Manchurians admit that most of themselves don’t speak Manchu language , they had been speaking it till one hundred years ago. Languages of a nation is also in constant flux, if you send a British person to Shake-speare’s Britain, he would not understand what he hears either.

今天的满洲人被支共和不了解的人误解为“东北人”,因为用地理方位指代民族可以弱化认同。

语言是不断变化的,包括满洲人的语言。把英国人送到莎士比亚时代,他们也听不懂“英国人”说话。同样地,今天满洲人说的话和几百年前也不同,但这不妨碍满洲仍然是一个独特的民族。

曼达琳语的八个亚组分布图。另请注意自成一体的晋语

The changes of languages in Manchuria can be sum-marized into three stages. Firstly, Manchu language had absolute dominance. Then Mandarin was formed as a creole language and gradually applied to wider occa-sions. Then “Concord Language” (协和语), a new creole language, was formed and became nearly distinct due to political reasons.

语言变化经历了三个阶段:第一阶段通行满语;第二阶段,形成克里奥尔语 — — 曼达琳语;第三阶段出现协和语,这个阶段被强行中断。

In 17th century before The Conquering of China, Manchu was the only language spoken by Manchurians. There were some Han Chinese immigrated from North-ern China into Manchuria, and they were soon assimilat-ed and began to speak Manchu.

In Qing Dynasty, when China Proper was under the rule of Manchus, the “Manchu Language and Mounted Archery” (国语骑射) policy was adopted by the emper-or when the ruler saw that Manchus were turning into Chinese speakers and loosing mounted archery in a wor-rying speed. Just like that British expats kept speaking English rather than Hindi or Tamil in the British India Colonies In today’s Manchuria, the Manchu language is still alive in some villages.

入关之前满语是通用的,而且形成了书面语。加入满洲的汉人也被同化说满语,但随着民族融合,同时形成了曼达琳语。

有清一代,满语作为“国语”,连同骑射一起被强调以防止满洲人丧失传统。

满族民间崇尚骑射的习俗随处可见。如家有男孩出生,门上要高悬小弓箭,以祝福男孩茁壮成长,成为英勇善射的“巴图鲁”(意为英雄);男孩六七岁时,长辈制作“木弓柳箭”开展早期习射训练,十岁参加正式的骑射教育与训练,十六七岁参加骑射比赛,合格者应征入伍成为“披甲”;满族人新婚时,“新婿用弓矢对舆射之”,意为“驱邪”,新婚之夜要在炕席上别三枝箭,以示辟邪;其家谱中以箭表示男性;其八旗村落也以“牛录”(意为重箭)命名。

Mandarin was formed as a creole language at the be-ginning of the Qing Dynasty. As a native language, Mandarin is spoken exclusively in Manchuria and Bei-jing. Being a distinctive Chinese language, it has critical differences from other Chinese languages such as Wu Chinese and Xiang Chinese: Clear distinguishing of stress and unstressed syllables such like stress-timed languages (e.g. English RP) which is a common feature for Tungusic languages (to which Manchu belong) and other Altaic languages. Frequent “Ar” sound(儿化)is also regarded as “strange” by speakers of China Proper. Not to mention numerous onomatopoeic words which resemble Manchu counterparts and Manchu loan words.

These features are not seen in most Chinese languages except other creole Chinese languages in Xinjiang, Gan-su and Qinghai which are under the influence of Turkish and Mongolian languages.

Today’s “Putonghua”, a modified version of Manda-rin, became the official language of PRC due to histori-cal reasons. Vivid expressions of Mandarin has been de-leted for the convenience of the Chinese people. Manda-rin(Also known as 东北话 “The language of the North-Easterners”)is regarded as a hilarious dialect suitable only for stand-up comedies by the Chinese peo-ple, but the language is accepted as cultural heritage by Manchurians.

曼达琳语属于汉语语族但和支那本部语言有本质不同:语音上重音非常明显,有重音计时(stress-timed)倾向,符合满语的通古斯语特点,儿化以及难以计数的、生动的拟声词也是其他汉语族缺少或非常不明显的。另外大量满语词汇的保留。总而言之,继承了满语底层,是融合语。今天满洲人说话有满洲口音却被当作搞笑。

The replacement of Manchu by Mandarin at the last turn of the century, with flooding in of immigrants, is the result of ethnic harmony. The major language spo-ken by the first generation of immigrants were Northern Chinese dialects and they chose or were assimilated to speak Mandarin because of linguistic similarity. The Mandarin, at the beginning of the 20th century, had much more exotic loan words than today. Sources in-clude Russian, Japanese, Korean, languages of other large immigrant groups (The second generation of them also spoke fluent Mandarin). Just as the Concord Lan-guage (see below).

For an Instance, MSG is still called 味素 by Manchu-rians which derived from the Japanese word”味の素”. Native Manchurians at that time use Mandarin only for the sake of convenience, because then in Manchuria, all other cultures such as food, lifestyle and customs were already highly similar. If a new immigrant refused to turn to any Manchurian cultures, native Manchurians would use more Manchu language to show their resolu-tion against Sinicization or Russianization, which was happening at the same time in Beijing and Outer Man-churia.

满语的主体地位被曼达琳语取代,发生在19世纪末到20世纪初。当时满洲有大量讲汉语的新移民进入,满洲人与他们相处时更多使用汉语族。本质上是由于五族协和而不是:我在风俗习惯同化了你,但以接近你的说话方式说话。如果新移民不被原有满洲人在风俗、饮食等方面同化,完全异质,那满洲人一定会坚持使用满语来维持自身认同。

Dialecto Mandarín noreste

As Mandarin became more accepted by immigrants and native Manchurians, new creole languages were formed in Japanese leased areas in Southern Manchuria (Dalian/Dairen) and Russian immigrant-dominated areas of Northern Manchuria (Harbin and Heihe). These cre-ole languages were lacking of rigid grammatical parti-cles ( as in Japanese) and confusing inflections (as in Russian) and was phonetically still Mandarin-Manchu.

The speech sequence that object is before the verb (in linguistic term ”SVO”) was a common feature of Man-chu, Mongolian, Japanese and Korean. After Manchu-kuo was established, a more common new creole lan-guage was formed on the basis of previous Mandarin-based Japanese-and-Russian-influenced creole lan-guages, which was later called Concord Language (“The Language of Harmony”). In Xinjing (now Changchun) Concord Language was even more widely spoken than Mandarin, the official language of Manchukuo. Howev-er, since the fall of Manchuria in 1945 and forced Sini-cization actions done by the Communist regime, Con-cord Language was forbidden and gradually disap-peared.But old people who speak a certain level of Con-cord Language can still be found twenty year ago or even ten years ago.

19世纪末以来,又在日本租界和俄国人居多的地方出现了新的克里奥尔语:南满洲e.g. 大连日语语法简化,汉语词汇多。北满的克里奥尔语大量俄语词混杂分析型语法。满洲国建国后,语言融合进一步增强,出现了以曼达琳语音为基础、语法接近满语和日语(SVO 语序),吸收大量外来语借词,被称为协和语。最流行的地方是新京(长春),在哈尔滨、奉天(沈阳/Mukden)等俄日裔居民多的地方也开始扩展和流行。但随着满洲被支共吞并,协和语被禁止,慢慢消失。但二十年前甚至十多年前还有一些老人能按协和语方式讲话,夹杂日语等外来词。

来往于清时商贸重镇 Kyakhta(恰克图)的商人们使用独特的中俄混合语交流。语言的克里奥尔化是不同语言交汇后发生的自然现象

An example of the Concord Language:

“Mumen enengi kewasi nomimale, laohaohe le.”

Literal translation: We today kvass drank, very good.

Mandarin:姆们 今儿 格瓦斯 喝了,老好了。

Standard Chinese:我们今天喝了格瓦斯,非常好。

English: Today we drank kvwass which was very good.

Languages of Manchuria today is a mixture of Manda-rin and languages spoken by “Minor ethnic groups” like the Koreans and the Russians, a historical result shaped by PRC. A much greater linguistic diversity and open-ness than China Proper is still seen in Manchuria.

今天所见的满洲内语言,是支共强行推动语言单一化,排外的结果,不符合满洲语言发展应有结果。但今天的满洲是支那内语言非常丰富和宽容的地方,残留的朝鲜裔多数能讲朝鲜语,满洲人对使用外语心态开放,曼达琳语仍然在凝聚人心 — — 外国人比在支那本部更容易掌握本地语言。

Be friends with the eagles and some traditional cos-tumes: inherit the ancient traditions

Cognation: American of East Asia
血统与种族方面:东亚美利坚

Chauvinistic people tend to define a land’s ownership by blood lineage in the narrow sense just like what Rus-sia did in Eastern Ukraine. Some Chinese people advo-cate that Hong Kong, Taiwan and Manchurian people must follow the ideology and lifestyle of Han Chinese, because there are so many China Proper inhabitants liv-ing in these lands who has even no love or sense of iden-tity for their lands.

血统不是唯一标准。像满族血统多的北京人,包括在中华民国时期反对满洲复国甚至加入的国民党,他们在中华人民共和国被定位为“满族”,但无论是他们自己还是今天的满洲人都不把他们当满洲人。今日俄罗斯在东乌克兰和支那人在港台蒙藏满都按“子宫武器”逻辑声称“自古以来”,是纯血统论,而且之前为了能有今日血统论都做了如集体屠杀、强制移民填塞等勾当。

According to a recent research (張華克:《舊滿洲檔》詞彙解析法的建立/Establishment of the Lexical Analysis on“Jiu Manzhou Dang), the original meaning of Manchu (“Manju”) from which the name Manchuria come from is “We, the people”. Just like the United States of America, Manchuria accepts people from around the world and elevates them, in turn, herself was elevated by new bloods and cultures. Immigrants are like the food, by consumption of food the human body becomes stronger, but the body remains the same, only stronger..

“Manchu(满洲)一词的原意:We, the People”

根据最新的研究,满洲的本意是“我们人民”。她有一个和美利坚同样伟大之处:接受来自世界的人民并提升他们,自己也相应地被提升。移民好比人吃下去的食物,身体还是原来的,而且更加强壮了。

How can you regard a fluent English-speaking entre-preneur who defends the American constitution but does not have the same skin color as the founding fathers as non-American? Similar cases can be found in Manchu-ria. We are Manchurians not only because we have been long lived in this land but also by commonly accepted Manchurian values. In the Manchukuo period, Manchu-rians(满洲人)were defined as “ The people who lives in Manchuria”. Another concept, “Manchurian Nation-als” (满洲国民), were emphasized and widely accepted and it reefers to the educated, civilized, Manchuria-loving Manchurian residents. Ethnic harmony together with extensive absorption of modern civilization were symbols of the new Manchurian state. As said in the 1933 Anthem, “For now, may we assimilate with the world; for the future, may we follow the ways of the Heaven and Earth.”(近之则于世界同化,远之则与天地同流。)

A Jew playing with a Manchurian girl, Harbin

你能说一个英语流利、事业有成、维护宪法的有色人种不是美国人吗?类似地,我们是满洲人,因为我们接受满洲价值。前满洲国时期有“满洲人”和“满洲国民”的区分,只有受教育并热爱和接受满洲价值的人才能称为国民。这价值的显著体现便是民族协和和文明开放。近之则于世界同化,远之则与天地同流。

At the beginning of 20th century, in Japanese leased area, Japanese descents in elementary schools wrote “I am not Japanese (national).” in Kana.

上世纪初满洲的日本租界内,曾有小学生用假名写下“我不是日本人。”

America today is still based on values advocated by the founding fathers. Similarly, the cornerstone of Man-churia has remained the same as that of the Manchu people hundreds of years ago. Today when notorious children trafficking cases happen in China Proper now and again, such crime is unimaginable for Manchurians. When the 2008 Chinese milk scandal caused fear among millions of mothers and fathers, the milk produced in Manchuria proved surprisingly safe and suitable for in-fants. Even Manchurian mafias seldom target children and women. Manchu people have never imposed physi-cal restrictions, such as foot-binding, up their women, because they led a life as hunters. Humane treatment on people, especially youngsters and females used to be re-ferred by Western missionary witnesses as something close to chivalry. Later, in 20th century, descendants of the noble savage had got their chance to build a modern civilization. They chose a complete independence from China Proper with the help of Japan where Communism surged. Communism was deplorable seen by traditional Manchurian culture.

1635年皇太极在努尔哈赤征服女真诸部的基础上,统称女真人为“满洲”。满洲的地理概念确实以“满洲人的土地”为基础。无论是清朝时期的满洲,还是民国过渡时期,以及满洲国时期,土地所有权、行政权力都是掌握满洲贵族的人手中,而满洲贵族也积极分享权力给新移民,形成了以满洲族为主导的新满洲民族。古代满洲人未沾染支那恶习,蛮族传统影响到今日。就是在经济颓废的情况下,也没用出现关内那种假牛奶、拐卖儿童的罪行。当年有机会满洲人自然而然选择了独立,远离战乱和共产主义兴起的支那,因此文明大盛。

After the fall of Manchukuo, Han Chinese was defined by PRC authorities as the ethnic majority in Manchuria. The ethnic group census in PRC is done in a complete Soviet and Chinese chauvinist way, with the ill intention of blurring the actual national boundaries. Many Man-chu people changed their ethnicity into “Han Chinese” out of the fear of persecution, many other have been forced to do the same. A special group of Chinese im-migrants after 1947 were appointed as main officers of the government. Many Manchurian families lost their genealogy because their grandparents were killed by the communists for being local “landlords”during the bloody Land Revolution in 1950. Many memories were lost.

匪共的“土地改革”

1945年亡国之后,形成了今天看似以“汉族”为主体的情况。但首先户口本是汉族的人中许多也有满洲族血统。更何况许多满族被强迫改成汉族,这是支共历史记忆销毁的结果。这段问题最大因为不是自由移民,而且带有直接的政治目的,如填塞来自山东、河南河北等的移民深居要职,还通过土地改革等方式杀害了许多土著地主,外来裔居民被大部分驱逐(遣返“苏侨”、日裔和朝鲜“流民”),几十万犹太人见势不妙也在1948年前主动离开了,没有正常人愿意喜迎共产政权。这都导致人口成发生变化。

In the eyes of the author Michael Meyer, Manchurians are still showing “Minnesota nice”. After many years of Sinalization.

在作家Michael Meyer眼中,支那化许多年后仍然满洲仍然和关内截然不同,有“明尼苏达式友好”。

Bodies during the Siege of Changchun: the population decreased to 170 thousand from 1.04 million

The writers of this article heard from old people that in late 1940s when Manchuria was to be completely occu-pied by Communists, some students in a big city com-mitted suicide by jumping off the building in order to pass away together with their beloved nation. Their teacher also committed suicide after all his students jumped. The ethnicities of them include Manchus, Chi-nese, Japanese, Koreans and Russians (maybe some Poles/Ukrainians). This story is hovering in our minds reminding us how tragic the history was and how glori-ous it must be for Manchuria to have raised such patriot-ic children.

We strongly believe that justice will be done and after the restoration of freedom, Manchuria will be shining in East Asia again.

笔者有幸听闻老者讲述满洲亡国时满日俄朝汉裔满洲人在老师的带领下纷纷主动跳楼殉国的事情。这记忆长期回荡挥之不去。我们坚信正义到来后满洲民族的共同体会更加坚固。

God bless Manchuria !
上帝保佑满洲!
Changbai Mountain
Golmin šanggiyan alin
Mount Everwhite
The Holy Mountain of
Manchuria