TOGAF 9.1 Series — ADM Various Topics

Have you ever heard of TOGAF and never really understood it? In my TOGAF 9.1 series of articles, I will give you summary points what TOGAF is and what you will learn in TOGAF.

I have written the TOGAF exam a while back. I thought that writing this series will let me review the TOGAF content and believe that it would be valuable to others. It is always a good practice to regularly review the contents of a topic that you have learned.

I’m not going to rewrite the official TOGAF books content in my article series. Some sections will only contain bullet points of key terms used in TOGAF. Always reference the official TOGAF book for more details.

Legal Points

TOGAF is a trademark of The Open Group. They maintain the TOGAF standard and release new versions of the framework. I highly recommend that you read the official website and content of TOGAF on the official site:

The contents in my article series are my opinions and in no way reflects the views of The Open Group.

If you are interested in learning all the finer details of TOGAF or want to write the exam then buy the official book:

Figure 1: TOGAF Version 9.1 book

Architecture Landscape

Classification Model

Strategic Architecture -> Segment Architecture -> Capability Architecture

Organizing the Architecture Landscape

  • Breadth
  • Depth
  • Time
  • Recency

Areas of Concerns

  • Authentication
  • Authorization
  • Audit
  • Assurance
  • Availability
  • Asset Protection
  • Administration
  • Risk Management

Security architecture artifacts

  • Business rules regarding handling of data/information assets
  • Written and published security policy
  • Codified data/information asset ownership and custody
  • Risk analysis documentation
  • Data classification policy documentation

Define and Govern SOA

Key benefits of Enterprise Architecture

  • Consistent abstraction of high-level strategies and deliverables to support planning and analysis.
  • Linkage of different perspectives to a single business problem providing a consistent model to address various domains and tests for completeness.
  • Identification of clear roadmaps to achieve future state.
  • Traceability that links IT and other assets to the business they support.
  • Support for impact assessment, risk/value analysis and portfolio management.
  • Identified and documented principles, constraints, frameworks, patterns and standards.

Negative affect without Enterprise Architecture

  • Limited agility
  • Difficulty identifying and orchestrating SOA services
  • Service sprawl
  • Exponentially growing governance challenges
  • Limited SOA service interoperability
  • Limited SOA service re-use
  • Multiple silo’ed SOAs
  • Difficult evolving and changing SOA implementations

SOA Activities

Strategic Architecture

  • The high-level relationships and boundaries within the organization
  • Cross-segment SOA capability requirements
  • Key capabilities best addressed by SOA
  • Key capabilities required for SOA
  • Segments best addressed by SOA
  • Principles and patterns of SOA service development and description.
  • The roles, responsibilities, processes and tools of SOA Governance.
  • The organization-specific Reference Architecture

Segment Architecture

  • Which capabilities will use SOA as an architecture style
  • Cross-capability relationships
  • More detailed cross-segment relationships
  • Cross-capability SOA service re-use possibilities
  • Principles and patterns of SOA service development and description

Capability Architecture

  • The functional and non-functional requirements of the capability
  • Cross-capability SOA service requirements
  • SOA services that enable cross-capability re-use
  • SOA services that enable the capability
  • Principles and patterns of SOA service development and description

SOA Reference Architecture

  • The building blocks of SOA
  • A high-level perspective of the SOA Reference Architecture
  • Detailed building blocks of the SOA Reference Architecture
  • Infrastructure for SOA
  • Industry SOA Standards

Architecture Principles

Key Domains

  • Enterprise Principles
  • Architecture Principles

Influence Factors

  • Enterprise mission and plans
  • Enterprise strategic initiatives
  • External constraints
  • Current systems and technology
  • Emerging industry trends

Qualities of Principles

  • Understandable
  • Robust
  • Complete
  • Consistent
  • Stable

Sets of Principles

  • Business Principles
  • Data Principles
  • Application Principles
  • Technology Principles

Stakeholder Management

Benefits of successful Stakeholder Management

  • The most powerful stakeholders can be identified early.
  • Support from the more powerful stakeholders will help the engagement.
  • By communicating with stakeholders early and frequently they fully understand the architecture process.
  • The architecture team can more effectively anticipate likely reactions to the architecture models and reports.
  • The architecture team can identify conflicting or competing objectives among stakeholders.


  • Identify Stakeholders
  • Classify Stakeholder Positions
  • Determine Stakeholder Management Approach
  • Tailor Engagement Deliverables

Architecture Patterns

Three types of patterns

Architecture Pattern

  • Expresses a fundamental structural organization or schema for software systems.

Design Pattern

  • Provides a scheme for refining the subsystem or component of a software system.


  • Is a low-level pattern specific to a programming language

Business Scenarios


  • A business process, application or set of applications that can be enabled by the architecture
  • The business and technology environment
  • The people and computing components who execute the scenario
  • The desired outcome of proper execution

A good business scenario is also “SMART”.


  • Specific
  • Measurable
  • Actionable
  • Realistic
  • Time-bound

Creating a Business Scenario

  1. Problem
  2. Environment
  3. Objectives (SMART)
  4. Human Actors
  5. Computer Actors
  6. Roles & Responsibilities
  7. Refine

Developed over an iterative phases of Gathering, Analyzing and Reviewing the information.

Contents of a Business Scenario

  • Business Scenario Models
  • Business Scenario Descriptions

Categories of Goals and Objectives

  • Improve Business Process Performance
  • Decrease Costs
  • Improve Business Operations
  • Improve Management Efficacy
  • Reduce Risk
  • Improve Effectiveness of IT Organization
  • Improve User Productivity
  • Improve Portability and Scalability
  • Improve Interoperability
  • Increase Vendor Independence
  • Reduce Lifecycle Costs
  • Improve Security
  • Improve Manageability

GAP Analysis

Sources of Gaps

Business domain gaps

  • People gaps
  • Process gaps
  • Tools gaps
  • Information gaps
  • Measurement gaps
  • Financial gaps
  • Facilities gaps

Data domain gaps

  • Data not of sufficient currency
  • Data not located where it is needed
  • Not the data that is needed
  • Data not available when needed
  • Data not created
  • Data not consumed
  • Data relationship gaps

Applications domain gaps

  • Impacted
  • Eliminated
  • Created

Technology domain gaps

  • Impacted
  • Eliminated
  • Created Compare ABB baseline against the target ABB in a matrix diagram.

Migration Planning Techniques

Techniques to support migration

Implementation Factor Assessment & Deduction Matrix. Factors:

  • Risks
  • Issues
  • Assumptions
  • Dependencies
  • Actions
  • Impacts

Consolidated Gaps, Solutions and Dependencies Matrix.

Architecture Definition Increments Table.

Transition Architecture State Evolution Table.

Business Value Assessment Technique.

Interoperability Requirements

Categories of interoperability

  • Operational or Business Interoperability
  • Information Interoperability
  • Technical Interoperability
  • Presentation Integration/ Interoperability
  • Information Integration/ Interoperability
  • Application Integration/ Interoperability
  • Technical Integration/ Interoperability

Refining degrees of Interoperability

  • Degree 1 — Unstructured Data Exchange
  • Degree 2 — Structured Data Exchange
  • Degree 3 — Seamless Sharing of Data
  • Degree 4 — Seamless Sharing of Information

Determine Interoperability Requirements

  • Business Information Interoperability Matrix
  • Information Systems Interoperability Matrix

Business Transformation Readiness Assessment

Determine Readiness Factors

  • Vision
  • Desire, Willingness and Resolve
  • Need
  • Business Case
  • Funding
  • Sponsorship and Leadership
  • Governance
  • Accountability
  • Workable Approach and Execution Model
  • IT Capacity to Execute
  • Enterprise Capacity to Execute
  • Enterprise Ability to Implement and Operate

Assess Readiness Factors

Readiness Factor Vision

Readiness Factor Rating

  • Urgency Rating
  • Readiness Status Rating
  • Degree of Difficult to Fix Rating

Readiness Factor Risks and Actions

Risk Management

Levels of Risk

Initial Level of Risk

  • Risk categorization prior to determining and implementing mitigating actions.

Residual Level of Risk

  • Risk categorization after implementation of mitigating actions.

Process of Risk Management

  • Risk classification
  • Risk identification
  • Initial risk assessment
  • Risk mitigation and residual risk assessment
  • Risk monitoring

Initial Risk Assessment

Effect Categories

  • Catastrophic
  • Critical
  • Marginal
  • Negligible


  • Frequent
  • Likely
  • Occasional
  • Seldom
  • Unlikely


  • Extremely High Risk
  • High Risk
  • Moderate Risk
  • Low Risk

Capability-based Planning


Capability-based planning focuses on the planning, engineering and delivery of strategic business capabilities to the enterprise.

Capability Dimensions

Capability -> Capability Increment -> Dimensions


  • People Dimension
  • Process Dimension
  • Material Dimension

Capabilities in an Enterprise Architecture Context

Corporate Strategic Plan -> Capability -> Capability Increment -> Building Block (Deliverables)

Originally published at on March 21, 2016.

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