Microphones — Digital Audio
More resources for teaching digital audio — Microphone basics.
Very basic stuff, good starting point and terminology — E-Home Recording Studio
More basics, includes directionality diagrams — Yamaha Pro Audio
More depth and detail — envato tuts+
Broader, more than just mics — Streamer Square
Real language notes on recording speech for a beginner with some FAQ — Peter L. Patrick (British)
Much more technical and in-depth, more directionality diagrams — Gearank
Originally published at DJ Mugen — Infinitely Danceable.