How China is extending its economic initiatives through debt-trap diplomacy and the Belt and Road Initiative

As the trade war between the United States of America and China seems to have disappeared in news headlines, China is quietly continuing to undermine American tariffs with its ambitious long-term economic investment projects. These programs span across 68 countries, 65% of the world’s total population, 40% of the world’s gross domestic product (GDP), and over 1700 individual projects. This is the Chinese Communist Party’s global Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). China for a long time had been trying to formulate a way to increase transnational investment, bypass maritime choke-points, and reduce its economic inconsistencies. The BRI is China’s answer…


A Historical Analysis of the U.S. — Iranian Relationship

Deceased General Qasem Soleimani and President Donald J. Trump

In this analysis, the U.S. — Iranian relationship will be examined from a historical perspective. The analysis will explain key political, intelligence, and militaristic events that shaped why the two nations are bitter adversaries today. Furthermore, this article will illustrate how the events unfolded and their significance to the U.S.- Iranian relations.

Starting with a joint clandestine operation by American and British intelligence branches, the overthrow of the 35th Iranian Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh, laid the groundwork for the pivotal 1979 Islamic Revolution.

PM Mossadegh was a prominent Iranian political figure. He was democratically elected and took office in 1951…


Sitting down with a former Syrian Food and Agriculture Organization Officer to discuss Syrian Women and Transitional Justice

Syrian Women Protesting together in 2011

The Syrian Civil War is a conflict like no other because it is a conflict that has produced an immense and unique amount of suffering for all involved. Whether an innocent civilian, a combatant, or a foreign entity the war has left none untouched. However, no other group has been oppressed more than Syrian Women.

Transitional justice in postwar Syria is a topic that has been examined from every lens but from the lens of those who are suffering the injustices. Those who lost children, brothers, fathers, Sons, Husbands, and whole families. There is a great lack of emphasis on…


The first major CIA paramilitary operation took place 71 years ago.

The joint Anglo-American Operation known as BG/FIEND was the first major CIA paramilitary action to attempt to roll back the Soviet Iron Curtain on June 22​ of 1949. The plan aimed to remove the Communist government of Albania. The well-entrenched Enver Hoxha was a revolutionary resistance leader who had climbed the ranks and became the Communist dictator. With Soviet support, he was able to fortify his position, politically and militarily.

The commitment and support from Soviet measures supported by consistent supply and maintenance of a 65,000-man army and 15,000- security forces acted as an unmatchable adversary. The Soviets had seen…


At Reformer, we look to explore that complexity instead of simplifying it. Here, you will find critical, contextual, and in-depth analysis. This means you’ll spend a bit more time reading our articles but will be left with a fuller picture of the different elements shaping our world.

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How can we as a society combat the lies that have engulfed our political system?

Image courtesy of the Atlantic

Lying, such a common thing that surrounds our political theatre, and frankly, our everyday lives. People have experienced it so much, that we as a society cannot differentiate truth from lies. Even when the “truth” is right in front of us, begging to be accepted and agreed upon. Even with the plethora of factual evidence to support each detail, people refuse to even look. Why? Is it because the truth is too painful to accept? Or is it that we are doomed to Plato’s allegoric cave? Sitting chained to our seats and watching the shadows dance on the walls, accepting…


How do you achieve liberty and equality in a time where the people have been robbed of it completely?

As protests continue across the nation, we face the familiar dilemma of how to balance liberty and equality. In this article, we take a look at two prominent figures in political theory; Phillip Pettit and Alex Gourevitch. An analysis of their theories; Antipower and cooperative production has yielded that the rule of law, culture, and a practicing democracy are all necessary components to achieve a balance between the two. Antipower focuses on freedom from domination or subjugation of another by having equal control over the law. On the other hand, Gourevitch acknowledges and extends this idea, stating that the entire…


The 17 Trillion Dollar Arctic Market

As our planet grows warmer and the true effects of climate change begin to melt the ice in the Arctic, we rapidly approach the inevitable reality of Arctic expansionism. Just as other lands have been colonized by world powers, the Arctic Ocean is no exception. It holds a treasure trove of vast resources and rare earth minerals. Moreover, the Arctic is home to two crucial passageways that connect East Asia, North America, and Europe. These passages are the famed Northwest Passage (NWP), which runs westward from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean and through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, and…


An analysis of the 2019 WorldWide Threat Assessment

The United States of America faces many threats and challenges from powerful adversaries like China, Russia, Iran, and North Korea. However, the United States faces threats from non-state actors and terrorist organizations as well as creating a diverse and difficult agenda. Regarding North Korea, U.S. President, Donald J. Trump has been making significant progress within the Korean Peninsula (or so it seems) as he declared that North Korea is “no longer a nuclear threat,” and that denuclearization is possible. However, the 2019 WorldWide Threat Assessment stated the opposite as “North Korea retains…


Colonial Legacies, State Chauvinism, and Foreign Interests

Imagine waking up one day only to see that your entire village is engulfed in a sea of fire and hearing the screams of women and children desperately trying to escape such a nightmare. Sadly, this is no nightmare, but the brutal reality for many Rohingya. Their villages have been burned and they are systematically targeted by Myanma security forces. The result is a mass exodus of over 700,000 Rohingya fleeing Myanmar and, in the process, risking death while traversing the dangerous landscape or exposing themselves to the unforgiving open sea via the Bay of Bengal. …

Chris Kiyaseh

Political Science student and writer for the page Reformer. Florida, United States of America

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