by Rashaad Colbert Jr

When you type a URL into your browser and press enter a webpage will appear within milliseconds To the end-user this process is very fast and can seem very one dimensional. However there are many steps and routes that must be completed in order for a webpage to be loaded onto a browser. In this article, we will take an in depth look at those steps.

DNS Request

When you…

Today there is nothing more functionally important than a lasting connection to the internet. The internet has developed into a wonderful and powerful tool and now more than ever, all kinds of things, machines, and even animals are getting connected to the internet.

“The Internet of Things (IoT) is a system of interrelated computing devices, mechanical and digital machines, objects, animals or people that are provided with unique identifiers and the ability to transfer data over a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction.”

Before recently, cell phones were just phones, not smartphones. Meaning that they could only send text…

by Rashaad Colbert Jr

What is Machine Learning?

Teaching a machine how “Learn from Experience”


How did you get 100? (Supervised Learning- Regression Technique)

The route you took to calculating and predicitng the answers is the exact kind of behavior that is trying to be taught to machines. Basically, we are trying to teach machines to Learn From Experience. By definition, Machine Learning (ML) is the scientific study of algorithims and statistical models that computer systems use to progressively improve their performance on a specific task. Sounds very technical, however you do not need a technical background to be…

by Rashaad Colbert Jr

Object Oriented Programming

Everything is an object

Everything is an object in the sense that it can be assigned a variable or passed as an argument to a function. However, even though everything is an object, they are all not created equal, some being mutable and others being immutable.All things, be they classes, values, functions, and almost every other language construct is conceptually an object.

Id and type

A variable is essentially a label that we assign to an object. In order to differentiate variables, we can use the id function. …

source: Toptal

Object-oriented Programming, or OOP for short, is a programming paradigm which provides a means of structuring programs so that properties and behaviors are bundled into individual objects. OOP models real world entities as software objects, which have some data associated with them and can perform certain functions.


Each thing or object is an instance of some class.Classes are used to create new user-defined data structures that contain arbitrary information about something. In the case of an animal, we could create an Car()class to track properties about the Car like the model, year, engine, and features.

The class provides structure, ie the blueprint for how something should be defined, but it doesn’t actually provide any real content itself.

A class attribute is a Python variable that belongs to a class rather than a particular object. It is shared between all the objects of this class and it is defined outside the constructor function, __init__(self,...), of the class.

Drawbacks: you can manipulate the value of an object inadvertently.

Advantages: Can be accessed by all members of the class.

class Car(): 
class_attr = 0
def __init__(self, make=0, model=0)…

By Rashaad Colbert Jr

ls is a Linux shell command that lists directory contents of files and directories. It is a very fundamental command in linux, however the process to actually computing this command is quite complicated and will make you appreciate the work that has been done to make it easy for the user to execute. In this article, we are going to take a look under the hood to see exactly what steps are taken to complete this seemingly simple two-letter process.

Before we understand how shell interperts user input, we must first get a rudimentary understanding of…

Static librarires is the result of the linker making a copy of all used library functions to the executable file.

In this article we will cover the following :

Why Use Libraries?

We use libraries in order to speed up the time of complication, as well as save space as programs tend to grow larger and larger. A library is a file containing several object files, that can be used as a single entity in a linking phase of a program. Static libraries are collections of object files that are linked into the program during the linking phase of compliatopn.

How they work

Static libraries is…

Steps of compliation

Whenever you create code in any language, it has to be processed in such a way that the computer can understand what you are trying to tell it to do. As you may know, computers can only read two digits, 1s and 0s. It would be merely impossible for us to write code only using those two digits. This is where gcc comes in handy. GCC stands for GNU C Compiler. It takes source files and transforms them to an executable file.

The compiler will take your code through four stages of compliation. Preprocessing, Compliation, Assembly, and Linking.


The first…

What’s the difference?

Underneath the file system, files are represented by inodes. When you create a file in the file system, a link to an inode is also created.

Hard Link

A hard link is merely an additional name for an existing file. Any number of hard links can be created for any file. Fore example, my name is Rashaad. Other people refer to me as Shaad, Jr, and so on. Even tho each name is different, they are still representing the same person. In order to delete the original file, each link must be deleted as well.

Why Use a Hard Link?

Hard links are an…

Rashaad Colbert Jr

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