The difference between “decentralized” and “distributed” is one of the things which most of cryptocurrency folks get wrong. As a consequence, many of them think that DLT (Distributed Ledger Technology) is equivalent to “blockchain” or “tangle”. Let’s try to understand the difference and see why “DLT” shouldn’t be used or, at least, should be read as Decentralized Ledger Technology.

A technology is not either distributed or decentralized, these are orthogonal to each other and any their combination is possible:

Not distributed & not decentralized — a simple drawing program (e.g. Paint) on your computer.

Distributed & not decentralized — Apache…

David Sonstebo keeps being too personal while describing events which led to him and me parting our ways. The previous lesson, when he published information about my private life and I made him remove it by publishing 5 his own quotes, wasn’t learnt — I believe the universe should be balanced, so below you will find our Discord conversations related to IOTA, Qubic and Jinn. It will allow you to make your mind up about his claim of me having “mental implosion”. …

As some people remember, the original target for Ict (Iota Controlled agenT) was mobile phones with Wi-Fi Direct. The phones were supposed to run IOTA without the Coordinator, relying on Economic Clustering to achieve consensus. The plan was to have Cluster 0 powered with the IOTA Foundation’s version of IOTA protocol. Unfortunately, the IOTA Foundation has changed their roadmap delaying the trinary implementation of the protocol by 2 extra years, so I had to adjust my plans too.

Ict is being retargetted, its main audience will be website visitors. A website owner will be able to attach a file written…

It’s no longer news that the IOTA Foundation is planning to abandon trinary and go binary way ( There will be some other breaking changes:

  1. Support of cryptographic algorithms not immune to quantum computers (leading to someone hacking big chunk of iotas and dumping them on the market when QC become the reality);
  2. Removal of bundles for the sake of having atomic transfers of variable size (making it impossible to process transfers on low-end IoT devices);
  3. Adoption of global sorting in the Tangle to enable address reuse and other features (which will impose a serious penalty on performance).


David’s side can be found on

I’ll try to be concise.

I joined the IOTA Foundation because I wasn’t satisfied with the pace of IOTA protocol finalization. I founded Omega team because Alpha team’s practices didn’t suit quick prototyping methodology. Lack of funding led to deficit of Omega programmers (I informed the IOTA Foundation directors numerous times about that) so not everything was finished by Omega team within the planned 6 months of operation, and even the completed work was abandoned for a reason unknown to me.

I quitted the IOTA Foundation and tried to finalize the IOTA protocol…

Repetitive actions, rules and constructs largely govern our life — it bores us.

We lack a deep sense of meaning, despite being inundated with new goods, services and information. We waste time while waiting for something interesting.

We notice the acceleration of time, but are unable to determine the cause of this acceleration: the absence of new impressions that generate and situate core milestones on our timelines.

We create imaginary worlds called paracosms; we set the rules of how they evolve and write their histories with our deeds. …

Jinn is a general-purpose processor operating on trits. Its architecture imitates the brain of vertebrate animals thus avoiding many pitfalls concealed in the von Neumann architecture with the von Neumann bottleneck being the most notable one. Those familiar with FPGAs or artificial neural networks will easily see the rationale behind design choices put into the Jinn architecture, the others should skim over the famous “Can Programming Be Liberated from the von Neumann Style? A Functional Style and Its Algebra of Programs” by John Backus.

The basic computing element of the Jinn architecture is a cell consisting of three mergers, a…

Paracosm Platform contains key elements which define its inner workings. Services on top of the platform (e.g. Caer Sidi) extend its capabilities but this usually requires to put extra trust into the service and its operator.

Some of these elements are:

Paracosm Key — a record in the Tangle containing the identificator of a being who uses Paracosm Platform. (Word “being” replaced “person” some time ago when we decided that the artificial intelligence ought to have the right to use Paracosm Platform on par with the humans.) It’s possible to have access to the platform and the services without a…

Noone knows what the final result of the Paracosm Project will be. I initiated it, invited different people to join its development and now trying to keep some distance to let the others shape the project. Nonetheless, some contours are already seen in the mist of future:

IOTA — the protocol allowing to embed paracosms into the very fabric of humans existence via the Internet-of-Things.

Ict (Iota Controlled agenT) — the software implementing the IOTA protocol and unlocking economic incentives which are supposed to bring millions of people into IOTA and create the transport level for the Paracosm Platform.


The first trillionaire will be an artificial intelligence entrepreneur. The majority of people either agree or disagree with this prediction and only a small fraction sees the third option — the whole mankind being the beneficiary. Split 1 trillion U.S. dollars among roughly 10 billion people, this is $100 per person, not much for citizens of the developed countries but quite a lot for the others. And what is not less important, the AI belonging to noone/everyone could not be misused easily.

Aigarth is a project aiming to make the third option come true. The name consists of two words…


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