His father, a senior Communist Party official who had been purged a few years earlier, was seized and repeatedly beaten. Student militants ransacked his family’s home, forcing the family to flee, and one of his sisters died in the mayhem. Paraded before a crowd as an enemy of the revolution and denounced by his own mother, the future president of China was on the edge of being thrown into a prison for delinquent children of the party elite.
An examination of memoirs written by them and by members of Mr. Xi’s family, though, offers an unusually vivid look at how a shy, bookish youth, raised in the bosom of party privilege, was tested and changed by the chaos that unfolded after Mao’s decision to turn the masses against the party establishment.
Unlike some youths from elite backgrounds, Mr. Xi did not turn against the party or Mao, but learned to revere strict order and abhor challenges to hierarchy, said Yongyi Song, a historian and librarian in Los Angeles who has long studied the Cultural Revolution.
“He suffered much under Mao,” Mr. Song said, “but I think that actually increased his belief that those who are ‘born red,’ those children of the party elite, earned the right to inherit Mao’s place at the center.”
“He told me of one incident, in which a primary school sports teacher with a very poor attitude bullied him when the wave of physical assaults in the Cultural Revolution was spreading,” she said. The sports teacher, she recalled, mocked him as “child of a black gang,” a term for toppled officials.
Violence was encouraged and widespread. In August and September of 1966, nearly 1,800 people died in attacks across Beijing, according to party estimates issued in 1980.
Mr. Xi lost an elder sister, Xi Heping, his father’s first daughter through an earlier marriage. Official accounts say she was “persecuted to death,” leaving out details, but a historian familiar with the party elite who spoke on condition of anonymity said she probably had taken her own life under duress, as many targeted by the Red Guards did in those years.
“Afterwards,” he added, “I recited the thoughts of Chairman Mao every day late into the night.”
At one point, militants paraded Mr. Xi and five adults on a stage before a rally, according to an associate of Mr. Xi’s father, Yang Ping, citing conversations with the father and family. Mr. Xi had to use both hands to hold up the cone-shaped metal hat he was made to wear.
“The mother had no choice but to go to the struggle session and sat below the stage,” Mr. Yang wrote. “When they yelled, ‘Down with Xi Jinping!’ on the stage, his mother was forced to raise her arm and shout the slogan along with everyone.”
He did not see his father again until 1972, when Premier Zhou Enlai arranged a family reunion.
The father, battered and disoriented after years of isolation and interrogation, “looked at his two grown boys, and totally failed to recognize them,” according to his father’s biography, citing an interview with Mr. Xi. The older man wept, and Mr. Xi offered him a cigarette.
“He asked me, ‘How come you also smoke?’” Mr. Xi said. “I said: ‘I’m depressed. We’ve also made it through tough times over these years.’
“He went quiet for a moment and said, ‘I grant you approval to smoke.’”
- Cultural Revolution Shaped Xi Jinping, From Schoolboy to Survivor，2015年9月24日
But on Thursday afternoon, just minutes after the former British colony’s high court had transformed him into one of the city’s first prisoners of conscience, Joshua Wong struck a decidedly an upbeat tone. “See you soon,” the 20-year-old protest leader tweeted after he and two friends, Nathan Law and Alex Chow, were jailed for their role in launching 2014’s umbrella movement, a historic 79-day occupation that drew hundreds of thousands of young people out on to the streets. But Rogers said that by turning the three men into political prisoners, authorities were giving them even greater legitimacy and boosting the very cause they were trying to undermine. “When you look throughout history at people who have become iconic figures, they’ve often done so because of spending periods of time in prison,” he said. “One only has to think of Gandhi, or Nelson Mandela or Aung San Suu Kyi, and countless others.”
- The Guardian，2017年8月17日
But Trump stood by his words when asked about them at his golf resort in New Jersey. “I hope they are going to fully understand the gravity of what I said, and what I said is what I mean,” he said. “Those words are very, very easy to understand.” Boris Johnson, the UK foreign secretary, said on Twitter that Britain was working with the US and other countries in the region to end the diplomatic crisis. The North Korean leadership has warned it will launch four missiles at the waters around US Pacific territory of Guam as a warning to the US if it persists with its practice sorties by long-range bombers based on the island. As for Merkel’s criticism earlier in the day, Trump said: “Maybe she’s speaking for Germany; let her speak for Germany. She’s a friend of mine, she’s a very good person, a very good woman, she’s a friend of Ivanka. Perhaps she is referring to Germany. She’s certainly not referring to the United States, that I can tell you.”
- The Guardian，2017年8月12日
The US president is employing both rhetoric and tactics which for decades have been used only by the North Korean side of the conflict. On the North Korean side, it is business as usual, of course: they repeat their promise to transform Seoul into the “sea of fire” every few years.
- Andrei Lankov, professor at Kookmin University, Seoul, and director of NK News，2017年8月12日
Britain’s National Cyber Security Centre (NCSC) has reportedly attributed the WannaCry malware, which affected the NHS and other organisations worldwide in May, to the North Korean-affiliated hacking team Lazarus Group. GCHQ’s US counterpart, the National Security Agency, has also linked the WannaCry bug to North Korea. The NCSC investigation reached the same conclusion based on its own research, the source said, adding no evidence had emerged of anyone else being involved. “North Korean cyber actors are not crazy or irrational: they just have a wider operational scope than most other intelligence services. This scope comprises a broad range of criminal and terrorist activity, including illegal drug manufacturing and selling counterfeit currency production, bombings, assassination attempts, and more,” says threat intelligence company Recorded Future.
- The Guardian旧闻，2017年6月16日
The special counsel investigating Russian interference in the 2016 US election, former FBI chief Robert Mueller, had been using a sitting grand jury in Virginia to authorise his team’s demands for documents and witnesses. Trump won only 4% of the vote in the District of Columbia. “This sets the scene of action for criminal trials, where charges will be laid, in the worst possible jurisdiction for Trump,” said Scott Horton, a lecturer at Columbia Law School. “Compared to Virginia, Republicans in DC are few and far between.”
Mueller’s investigators are reported by the New York Times to have asked the White House for documents related to the administration’s first, short-lived national security adviser, Michael Flynn, who resigned after being found to have concealed the full nature of his contacts with the Russian ambassador to Washington, and who is also under scrutiny for his lobbying work for Turkey during the campaign. Meanwhile, a report from Vox says that senior FBI officials have been told to consider themselves potential witnesses in an investigation of Trump for obstruction of justice. The former FBI director James Comey, Mueller’s successor in the post, has testified that Trump tried to put pressure on him to drop the Flynn investigation. After Comey rebuffed the pressure and refused to swear personal loyalty to Trump, he was fired, on 9 May. Trump denies trying to coerce Comey into dropping the case but this is not simply one man’s word against another’s. Comey made extensive notes and kept an inner circle of top FBI aides informed of daily developments. On Tuesday, after adamant denials from Trump’s lawyer, the White House admitted that Trump had “weighed in as any father would” in drafting a misleading statement about his son’s June 2016 meeting with a Russian lawyer with strong Kremlin and intelligence links.
Firing Mueller would come at a high price, triggering uproar in Washington, alienating some Republicans in Congress. Two bipartisan bills were drafted this week aimed at blocking Trump from doing just that. The unfolding investigation could topple a president, or could just as easily leave the country even more grievously divided and wounded than it is now.
- The Guardian，2017年8月5日
“HNA ist mit dem Anteil von 9,9 Prozent sehr zufrieden, es gibt keine Pläne, die Beteiligung zu erhöhen”, sagte Schütz, der HNA im Aufsichtsrat der Deutschen Bank vertritt, dem SPIEGEL. “Unser Einfluss wird überschätzt.”
- Der Spiegel，2017年8月5日
A Chinese-American professor and his wife will be expelled from Singapore for collaborating with foreign intelligence agents, according to a statement from the city-state’s home affairs ministry.
China’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs said on Friday night that it had no knowledge of the incident.
Huang Jing — director of the Centre on Asia and Globalisation at the Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy (LKYSPP) and a former fellow at the Brookings Institution — and his wife will be permanently banned from re-entering the country, the statement released on Friday, carried by Singaporean media, said.
「For truly corrosive irony, one had to look at styob, a Russian style of humor that ridicules its object by overidentifying with it (think Stephen Colbert always staying in character as a Fox News wingnut). Styob was all but invisible to Westerners; it never became part of Western narratives about Russia, perhaps because we couldn’t be sure we got the joke.」
“苏维埃骗子”在苏联后的俄罗斯并没有绝迹，而是有了新的面目。这是苏联国民分裂人格和犬儒主义的延续。美国加州大学伯克利分校人类学教授阿列克赛•尤恰克（Alexei Yurchak）是一位俄裔教授，他在《完蛋之前一切皆万岁：最后一代苏联人》（获2007 年Wayne S. Vucinich 图书奖）中，分析了苏联社会文化中的分裂人格：一个人可以一面参加共青团的会议，一面在桌子底下偷偷阅读索尔仁尼琴的《古格拉群岛》。尤恰克称此为社会主义文化的“表演性切换”（performative shift）。 在会议上开口发言，是正儿八经马列主义，私底下却并不信这一套。这两种状态可根据需要随时切换，套上和取下假面都极为方便，不觉得麻烦，也毫无内疚。在1970年代的苏联，官方意识形态已经完全成为一种形式主义的官话和空洞的套话。运用意识形态话语不过是一种仪式性的表演，以表现自己的政治忠诚。至于这种忠诚是否真的有信仰的内涵，已经不重要了，或者就算重要，也因为太多人戴着这个假面而无法验证了。
“Would I want to start heavy, heavy trade or currency manipulation statements against somebody that is out there right now trying to stop what could be a very bad situation?” However, the relationship has soured in recent weeks, with the US president venting his frustration at what he sees as Chinese inaction on North Korea in the wake of a second intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) test on 28 July.
“I am very disappointed in China,” Trump tweeted last weekend. “Our foolish past leaders have allowed them to make hundreds of billions of dollars a year in trade, yet they do NOTHING for us with North Korea, just talk. We will no longer allow this to continue.” Tensions could increase further this week, with Trump reportedly poised to punish Beijing by issuing a presidential memorandum which would cite Chinese theft of intellectual property as a problem.
- The Guardian，2017年8月3日
“There has been no information as to where she is, who is detaining her or when she might reappear. [But] it is clear to me … that the Chinese government has her,” said Genser. “She continues to suffer enormously … I actually don’t think Kafka could have imagined a scenario as terrible as hers.” Genser said he expected that, having received his complaint, the UN body would now ask Beijing to respond to claims that Chinese security forces were behind Liu Xia’s disappearance. He hoped the move would force Beijing to “reappear” Liu Xia, who has never been charged with any crime, and allow her to leave China.
Questions about their plight have been purged from official transcripts of its press conferences. “I do not know the information you mentioned and is not a diplomatic question,” foreign ministry spokesman Lu Kang told a reporter from Sky News who inquired about Liu Xia’s whereabouts last week. “Next question.”
- The Guardian，2017年8月2日
Apple Inc. has removed dozens of virtual private network services from its App Store in China. “We’re disappointed in this development, as it represents the most drastic measure the Chinese government has taken to block the use of VPNs to date, and we are troubled to see Apple aiding China’s censorship efforts,” said VPN provider ExpressVPN in a blog post Saturday, the day the apps were taken down. “ExpressVPN strongly condemns these measures, which threaten free speech and civil liberties.”
Earlier this month, Apple said it would build its first data center in China to speed up cloud services for customers and comply with new cybersecurity laws requiring foreign firms to store digital information on China-based servers. Apple says the government will have no backdoor access to the data center. Unlike in the U.S. where Apple can counter government policy on immigration or climate change, China provides little room for dissent.
Thanks to the success of its iPhone, Apple is one of the only foreign technology companies to have flourished in China, a country that’s championing the idea of Internet sovereignty in lieu of a free and open global Web. It’s a strategy embraced by other autocratic regimes such as Russia, which revealed Sunday that it had passed a law banning VPNs.
- Los Angeles Times，2017年7月31日
HNA’s purchase is likely to get rejected amid concerns of Chinese control over U.S. hedge funds and investment banks — a decision that wouldn’t bode well for President Donald Trump’s administration, he said. “In some ways, the White House is probably relieved to get rid of Scaramucci because now, no matter what happens to that deal, that burden won’t be with the White House,” Rickards continued. “Using the [New Yorker] interview was great cover to get rid of Scaramucci before the hedge fund deal and national security review blew up in his face.”
“Troops across the entire military, you must be unwavering in upholding the bedrock principle of absolute party leadership of the military,” Mr. Xi said at the parade, held on a dusty training base in Inner Mongolia region, 270 miles northwest of Beijing. “Always obey and follow the party. Go and fight wherever the party points.” Officially, the display was to celebrate the 90th anniversary of the creation of the People’s Liberation Army. But it was also the highlight of a week of political theater promoting Mr. Xi as a uniquely qualified politician whose elevated status as China’s “core” leader, endorsed by officials last year, should be entrenched at the party congress. Some experts have speculated that Mr. Xi may want to retain power after those terms end, although the Constitution says he cannot stay on as president. There are no firm rules for maximum terms as party general secretary.
Mr. Xi is by the estimate of many observers China’s most powerful leader since Deng Xiaoping, who died in 1997. While the military does not have much direct say in politics, its support is essential for Mr. Xi’s long-term authority, Professor Ding said.
On Friday, Study Times, a party newspaper widely read by officials, devoted its front page to an adulatory profile of Mr. Xi that said he was blessed by his “red” upbringing with special leadership mettle. It recounted his tough maturation as the son of a veteran revolutionary who was persecuted by Mao, testing the family’s loyalty to the Communist cause, and his seven years working in the dirt-poor countryside during the Cultural Revolution. Mr. Xi “grew up with an inheritance of red genes, was tempered by harsh setbacks and suffering, and has steeled himself in complicated international struggle,” the profile said, referring to his revolutionary background and career. “The lion of the east has woken,” it said, referring to China. “But it faces tremendous risks of being surrounded by tigers and wolves and suffering even more intense strategic encirclement, clashes and meddling.”
He told senior officials at the two-day meeting that ended on Thursday that the report should treat China’s next few years as a time of great risk. “Look to the developments that are bring us risks,” he told the officials, according to a report in People’s Daily, the official party paper. “Be ready for the worst, and make the fullest preparations for that, while working toward a good outcome and striving for the best.”
- New York Times，2017年7月30日
The United States has accused China and Russia of bearing “unique and special responsibility” for North Korea’s “belligerent” pursuit of nuclear weapons, after Pyongyang tested its latest ballistic missile. North Korea conducted its second intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) test late on Friday in what it called a warning to the “beast-like US imperialists”. It came less than a month after its first such experiment, on 4 July. “If the Yankees brandish the nuclear stick on this land again despite our repeated warnings, we will clearly teach them manners,” KCNA warned.
Tillerson pointed the finger of blame at Beijing and Moscow. “As the principal economic enablers of North Korea’s nuclear weapon and ballistic missile development program, China and Russia bear unique and special responsibility for this growing threat to regional and global stability,” he said in a statement.
Tillerson’s comments are sure to anger Russia and China. Earlier this month Beijing rejected claims from US president Donald Trump that it had a responsibility to do more to rein in its ally. “I think this either shows lack of a full, correct knowledge of the issue, or there are ulterior motives for it, trying to shift responsibility,” Geng Shuang, a foreign ministry spokesman, told reporters. On Saturday, China’s foreign ministry made no reference to Tillerson’s comments but called on Pyongyang “to respect United Nations security council resolutions and stop all acts that could worsen tensions on the Korean peninsula”. China also “urged all the relevant parties to act with caution” to prevent the situation from escalating, the ministry added, parroting previous language on the issue.
“What I think this changes is that it forces the US to confront something that we have said for a long-time is unacceptable … [that] they can target New York and LA and there is not much we can do about it.” “The window for [military action] has closed. People are jumping up and down and screaming [in Washington] not because they are getting ready to attack but because they don’t really have that option any more and they accept that it has gone,” Lewis added.
- The Guardian，2017年7月29日
This was a spending spree that was intensified in the wake of China’s 2015 stock market fiasco, where the Shanghai and Shenzhen composites were inflated far out of proportion before descending back to earth, sending a shockwave through the country that resounded to the tune of: get your money out while you still can. Not only did big companies start paying ridiculous prices for foreign acquisitions but lay citizens did as well, dumping their savings and any excess cash they could get out of China into expensive housing in places like Sydney, London, and Vancouver.
All told, it is becoming clear that China’s Belt and Road will not go the same way that NAFTA initially did for the USA or of Japan’s big outward bound spending spree in the 1980s. It is looking as if China will not see a situation where droves of private domestic companies up anchor and go offshore, leaving industrial wastelands and an economic vacuum in their wake, essentially doing to them what companies like Kodak, GM, and GE did to the USA during the first leg of the globalization race.
While many Chinese companies will be offshored in the years to come and China will land many high-profile foreign acquisitions, it will be done very strategically and with the tether to the motherland still firmly attached. It is now clear that the vanguard of the Belt and Road will not be the ‘gray rhinos’ — the tycoons who lead dynamic and innovative private companies like Wanda, HNA Group, and Anbang — but shadowy state-owned firms with ambiguous acronyms that start with the letter C: COSCO, CREC, CRCC, CNGC, CMG . . .
- Forbes, “Xi Jinping To China’s Private Sector: Go Home, The New Silk Road Is Not For You”, 2017年7月27日
At first glance, it appears to be one of the most generous donations in the history of philanthropic giving in America. A Chinese man has transferred more than 29 percent of HNA Group of China — the equivalent of as much as $18 billion — to a New York-based private foundation. The donation puts him in the same league as donors like Bill Gates and Warren E. Buffett and almost matched the combined giving of all American corporations in 2016. But it has not been disclosed how that man, Guan Jun, who is in his 30s, came to own such a large piece of one of China’s biggest conglomerates. His registered address in Beijing is a modest apartment at the end of a dingy hallway littered with discarded furniture and bags of trash.
Understanding HNA’s ownership structure is important because the company last year was the biggest Chinese investor in the United States. Many companies, including banks, are bound by know-your-customer rules and need clarity on who owns their clients’ business. Bank of America recently decided not to engage in any transactions with the Chinese conglomerate, citing concerns over its murky shareholder structure and allegations of political connections. Scrutiny of its ownership had escalated after Anthony Scaramucci, the new White House communications director, announced in January that he was selling his hedge fund to an HNA subsidiary.
The Chinese branch of Hainan Cihang owns an additional 22.8 percent, bringing the total owned by the foundations to about 52 percent. Hainan Cihang also must begin distributing 5 percent of its assets every year. According to figures derived from the privately held company’s 2016 annual report, HNA’s book value is $61 billion, making Hainan Cihang’s share worth $18 billion. That translates into $900 million in donations a year, which may necessitate assets sales in order to raise that money, Mr. Schmalbeck said. “This could be a real painful box for them to be in,” he said.
HNA’s murky ownership structure and huge transfer to a private foundation hark back to an earlier era in the United States, when rich families would often put assets into foundations to shield them from taxation. A 1969 law changed that, instituting the 20 percent cap and the requirement to give out 5 percent of the holdings each year. HNA, which has been a deal-making juggernaut in recent years, has lately run into roadblocks both in China, where officials are trying to slow the outflow of foreign currency reserves, and in Washington.
- New York Times，2017年7月26日
China’s HNA Group Co. bought 25 percent of Hilton from Blackstone Group LP in March, helping to ease an overhang on the stock because of its heavy ownership by one company that planned to sell its shares. Hilton’s January spinoffs of its real estate and timeshare business came as China moved to clamp down on financial risk-taking.
HNA, which has made more than $40 billion of foreign acquisitions, including stakes in Hilton and Deutsche Bank AG, faces growing regulatory scrutiny that threatens to scare off bond investors and raise its financing costs. If the Chinese government forces HNA to pay down debt as part of a broader crackdown on corporate leverage, the company may be required to liquidate some of its shareholdings. “One has to be attentive to this and realize there could be a block that hits the market,” said Samuel Lieber, CEO of Alpine Woods Capital.
每一种历史都包含着神话，但潜藏于民族史学中的神话则尤其无耻。人民的和民族的历史被设计得像城市广场的雕像 — — 它们必须庄严宏伟、高耸卓绝、英勇雄壮。直到20世纪最后25年，阅读民族史恰如阅读地方报纸的体育版：“我们”和“所有其他人”成了平常的、几乎是自然的分隔。在一个多世纪里，关于“我们”的生产成为民族历史学家和考古学家终生的工作，他们成为官方的记忆祭司。流浪的民族需要一个属于它自己的疆域；与此同时，一处空旷的处女地也期望一个民族来使其焕发生机。确实，一些不速之客定居在这片祖地上，但是，因为犹太民族两千年里“在他们的大流散中坚守对它的信念”，所以，这片土地就只属于犹太民族，而不属于少数没有历史却碰巧来到这里的民族。因此，由一个流浪的民族为征服其故土所发动的战争被证明为正当，当地居民的暴力抵抗则是犯罪；只是由于犹太人的慈悲（非常不符合《圣经》的），这些闯入者才被允许留下和定居在犹太民族之中及其近旁，而犹太民族则重归了它的《圣经》语言和它奇妙的家园。即便是在以色列，上述那些记忆的重负也非自发出现，而是从19世纪下半叶开始，由一些研究过去的天才的重构者们层层累积起来的。他们起初收集了犹太教徒和基督徒宗教记忆中的诸多片段，他们富有想象力地从中建构了一个“犹太民族”漫长和连续的谱系。而非常值得注意的是，在那之前，不存在组织化的公共“记忆”，自那以后，公共“记忆”几乎没有变化。几千年间真的存在过一个犹太民族，而其他“民族”都衰落或消失了吗？《圣经》是一部使人敬畏的神学文库（尽管没有人确切知道其各卷创作或编辑的时间），它是如何以及为何会变成一部记录一个民族起源的可靠的历史书籍的呢？犹太哈斯蒙王国 — — 其形形色色的臣民不是全说一种语言，而且他们大部分是文盲 — — 在什么程度上是一个民族国家呢？如果说世界上的犹太人确实属于一个民族，那么，除了宗教信仰和那种信仰的一些实践之外，一个在基辅的犹太人和一个在马拉喀什（Marrakech）的犹太人，他们人种文化中的共同要素是什么呢？尽管我们被告知了总体情况，但直到它的竞争对手基督教和伊斯兰教兴起之时，犹太教完全是一种广泛传播的吸引人的宗教，其后虽然遭受屈辱和迫害，但它也幸存下来并进入了现代。是否像犹太民族主义过去130年间一直宣称的那样，犹太教始终是一种重要的信仰文化而非一种单一的民族文化这样的论点，贬损了犹太教的尊严？以色列坚持把自身视为属于世界上所有犹太人的一个犹太人国家，即便他们不再是受迫害的难民，而是自愿选择定居国家的正式公民。这种严重侵犯现代民主的基本原则，并对部分公民进行恶劣歧视的种族统治的借口，端赖于最终必然会聚首在其祖先土地上的一个永恒民族的那个始终发挥着影响的神话。作者以法国历史学家马塞尔·德蒂安（Marcel Detinne）提出的问题 — — “我们如何才能在民族史中去民族化？” — — 开篇，这个问题在他心中引发了共鸣。我们怎样才能停止在主要由民族幻想伪造的材料所铺就的道路上跋涉呢？昨天的身份噩梦不等于明日的身份理想。正如每个人的人格都是由易变和多样的身份组成，历史也是变动中的一种身份。
前两天，万科董事局主席郁亮在接受新华社采访的时候打了个哑谜。他说，2017年对于中国房地产来说，意义堪比1998年。1998年，这年是中国楼市走向市场化的分水岭。此前，楼市基本上是“公有制”，政府、国有企业建房，职工以极低价格租住。去年起，国家开始提出“房子是用来住的，不是用来炒的”，及酝酿建立“长效机制”。在雄安新区，商品房很有可能不出现，或被严格限制。厦门开启了限售的先例，二三十个城市跟进。在一些城市，甚至出现“追溯性限售”。100%的自持项目在土地拍卖市场上出现，直到上海把转让的土地性质定位为“租赁住房”。这些天，更具爆炸性的消息来了 — — 国家圈定了广州、深圳等12个城市，搞住房租赁试点。即是说，国有企业、政府将强势介入租赁行业、设立“住房租赁交易服务平台”。未来新增住房结构将发生重大转折，“公有制”主导住房市场的局面，肯定会出现。所以可以说：住房正重返“公有制”。
The strongest support for Mr Wang comes from Chinese economic reformers, international executives and foreign diplomats who believe the world’s second-largest economy desperately needs an activist premier in the mould of Mr Wang’s mentor, Zhu Rongji, who served as premier from 1998 to 2003. Though he served only one term, Mr Zhu retired secure in the knowledge that he would be remembered as one of China’s most influential premiers. On his watch China joined the World Trade Organisation and overhauled its state-owned industrial and financial sectors — precisely the type of complicated and painful reforms that Mr Xi’s administration has been unable or unwilling to tackle during its first term. Two people close to Mr Zhu, who reformist officials often refer to as “the great premier”, say that he badly wanted a second term. When he didn’t get one, they add, he hoped that the job would eventually go to Mr Wang.
“Wang has an international Rolodex and stays in touch with people,” adds a friend. “He says it’s a shame that most of his colleagues don’t do the same.” In his 2015 memoir, Dealing with China, Hank Paulson, former US Treasury secretary and Goldman Sachs chief executive, recalls an admonishment he received from Mr Wang during a meeting in the midst of the global financial crisis: “You were my teacher but look at your system, Hank, we aren’t sure we should be learning from you any more.” In contrast, Mr Wang’s confidence in China’s unique model of state-led capitalism only seems to have increased and there is no indication that he has any qualms with the more authoritarian approach Mr Xi has taken in almost every sphere of governance. “There is no such thing as separation between the party and government,” Mr Wang said at a public meeting in February. He also appears to believe that the political whirlwind he and Mr Xi unleashed five years ago will continue, no matter whether he remains on the political stage or retires. “The anti-corruption campaign is not like a gust of wind or something that passes in a few days,” Mr Wang said in the leaked video. “There is a beginning but no end to this.”
- Financial Times，2017年7月24日
俄罗斯杜马（议会下议院）上周五投票通过了一项法案，要求互联网服务提供商屏蔽提供 VPN 或者其他网络代理服务的网站。这项法案如果接下来在俄罗斯联邦委员会（议会上议院）投票通过，经由总统签字将成为正式法律。这个周末，超过 2000 人在莫斯科街头游行，抗议该项法案，抗议口号包括“真相比审查制度更有力量”、“自由的国家，自由的互联网”等。
2016 年，与克里姆林宫和俄罗斯东正教会关系密切的俄罗斯富豪康斯坦丁·马洛费耶夫（Konstantin Malofeev）旗下的互联网游说团体“安全互联网联盟”在莫斯科接待了由中国网信办主任鲁炜和北京邮电大学前任校长方滨兴带队的一个大型代表团。该团体希望学习中国的技术。
When I walk down the street and catch words, phrases, and exclamations, I always think — how many novels disappear without a trace! Disappear into darkness. We haven’t been able to capture the conversational side of human life for literature. We don’t appreciate it, we aren’t surprised or delighted by it. We were told that human beings exist in order to give everything they have, to burn out, to sacrifice themselves. We grew up among executioners and victims. Even if our parents lived in fear and didn’t tell us everything — and more often than not they told us nothing — the very air of our life was poisoned. Evil kept a watchful eye on us.
The “Red Empire” is gone, but the “Red Man,” homo sovieticus, remains. He endures.I can’t bring myself to use the word ‘sovok,’ that derogatory epithet for the Soviet mentality, because then I would have to apply it my father and others close to me, my friends. Today they are sometimes called slavery romantics. Slaves of utopia. It was socialism, and it was simply our life. I have collected the history of “domestic,” “indoor” socialism, bit by bit. The history of how it played out in the human soul. I am drawn to that small space called a human being … a single individual. In reality, that is where everything happens.
Right after the war, Theodor Adorno wrote, in shock: “Writing poetry after Auschwitz is barbaric.” My teacher, Ales Adamovich, whose name I mention today with gratitude, felt that writing prose about the nightmares of the 20th century was sacrilege. Nothing may be invented. You must give the truth as it is. A “super-literature” is required. The witness must speak. Nietzsche’s words come to mind — no artist can live up to reality. He can’t lift it.
I will take the liberty of saying that we missed the chance we had in the 1990s. The question was posed: what kind of country should we have? A strong country, or a worthy one, where people can live decently? We chose the former — a strong country. Once again, we are living in an era of power.
Congressional leaders have reached an agreement on sweeping sanctions legislation to punish Russia for its election meddling and aggression toward its neighbors, they said Saturday, defying the White House’s argument that President Trump needs flexibility to adjust the sanctions to fit his diplomatic initiatives with Moscow. Mr. Trump could soon face a decision: veto the bill — a move that would fuel accusations that he is doing the bidding of President Vladimir V. Putin of Russia — or sign legislation imposing sanctions his administration abhors.
The new legislation sharply limits the president’s ability to suspend or terminate the sanctions — a remarkable handcuffing by a Republican-led Congress six months into Mr. Trump’s tenure. The delays in the House became a source of deep frustration among some Russia hawks, including Senator John McCain, Republican of Arizona, before he left Washington for medical treatment for a brain tumor. “Pass it, for Christ’s sake,” he said to his House colleagues, as the measure languished last week over technical concerns raised mostly by Republicans.
- New York Times，2017年7月22日
一周前，工信部否认下发通知屏蔽个人 VPN。一周之后，事实否定了工信部的否认。大量用户发帖抱怨 VPN 连接不上或者着急寻找新的 VPN 代理工具。有阿里云的用户收到通知称，网站上的科学上网教程违反了相关服务协议和《互联网信息服务管理办法》第十五条规定，阿里云采取了屏蔽该页面 URL 的措施。阿里云还警告称，如果一个域名发生了三次违规每次累积违规页面超过 100 条，那么该域名将会阻断且永不开通。在 WhatsApp 图片服务被封锁的同时，腾讯也加强了对微信图片的审查，《华尔街日报》援引知情人士和加拿大多伦多大学公民实验室的研究报道，过去一年当中，图片拦截的情况更多了，而且有迹象表明审查是自动进行的。
北京网信办通过其微信公众号网信北京宣布在 7 月 18 日约谈了搜狐、网易、凤凰、腾讯、百度、今日头条、一点资讯等网站的相关负责人，责令网站立即对自媒体平台存在的 “曲解政策违背正确导向”、“无中生有散布虚假信息”、“颠倒是非歪曲党史国史”、“格调低俗突破道德底线”、“惊悚诱导标题党现象泛滥”、“抄袭盗图版权意识淡薄”、“炫富享乐宣扬扭曲价值观”、“题无禁区挑战公序良俗” 等八大乱象进行专项清理整治。网信办在文章中要求“属地各运营自媒体网站必须坚守政治红线、道德底线，以培育积极健康、向上向善的网络文化为目标”，“共同维护网络空间天朗气清、生态良好”。
在当下神秘，紧张而畸形的社会情境里， 人们需要各种想象来脑补这件事背后的真正肇因 。3月份他海外收购项目遇阻，6月22日，万达遭遇股债双杀，通过出售文旅板块和酒店项目，万达集团主业几乎被腰斩，是否继续下滑，底线在哪里，外界没有答案，王健林自己也未必有答案。曾经标榜“亲近政府，远离政治”，以善于处理政商关系闻名的老王，发现自己三十年拼杀搭建的商业帝国，在新的政商丛林中面临着前所未有的解体威胁。
最近除了郭先森还在撒泼耍赖给我们捣乱，东南边疆，算得上是捷报频传：连年巨亏400多亿负债累累的中国远洋，溢价31% 63亿美元收购董特首家族控股的东方海外；梁国雄、刘小丽、罗冠聪和姚松炎四个卖国贼被逐出香港特区立法会，从此建制派再无后患。同一个中国，同一个梦想，妄图建造偏安一隅的政治经济小磁场，我们只能含笑指出，这是以卵击石。当然，黎智英手里还有《苹果日报》，香港也还有各种智各种英。这也吓唬不了谁，用黎老板擅长的方言说，no problem，我们有足够的胡锡进，就怕是《苹果日报》不够用。
The death of the Nobel Peace Prize laureate Liu Xiaobo after years of incarceration is another black mark on China’s human rights record. I believe that my husband, Edgar Snow, would be appalled by the punishment meted out to Mr. Liu for the crime of speaking his mind and for his peaceful actions to defend fundamental freedoms. How ironic that the Chinese government today is practicing the same kind of oppression and abuse of power that Mao Zedong’s revolutionary forces were struggling against when my husband defied government censorship to write about them in 1936. It is an outrage that Mr. Liu’s wife, the poet Liu Xia, has been under house arrest since 2010 for no other reason than her marriage to Mr. Liu.
- Lois Wheeler Snow，2017年7月19日（The writer is the widow of Edgar Snow, the author of “Red Star Over China”.）
(Die Deutsche Bank wird chinesischer.) Europe’s top banking regulator is considering an investigation into Chinese conglomerate HNA’s purchase of a stake in Deutsche Bank that could further strain relations between the EU and Beijing. The Single Supervision Mechanism, the banking watchdog that operates under the European Central Bank, is also considering a review of share purchases in Germany’s largest lender by Qatar’s royal family. Germany last week announced plans to block takeovers of the country’s companies over fears over the scale of Chinese dealmaking in recent years, although those fears have in the past focused on high-tech companies.
- Financial Times，2017年7月18日
Les autorités ne cessent de marteler qu’elles veulent davantage mettre l’accent sur la maîtrise des risques financiers. L’équation, pourtant, est délicate. Politiquement d’abord, à l’approche d’un important rendez-vous : à l’automne, le Parti communiste chinois tient son 21e congrès, au cours duquel Xi Jinping espère obtenir un nouveau mandat de cinq ans. Selon les analystes, il est peu probable qu’il prenne, d’ici là, des décisions susceptibles de freiner fortement la croissance. S’il s’accentue, le serrage de vis financier des autorités devrait finir par peser un peu sur la croissance. Au second semestre peut-être, et en 2018 plus sûrement. Celle-ci pourrait tomber l’an prochain à 5,9 %, avertissait ainsi Fitch vendredi.
- Marie de Vergès，2017年7月17日
En fait, l’UE négocie discrètement depuis plusieurs semaines, avec la Corée du Sud mais aussi avec Pékin. Le dossier nord-coréen a été abordé le mois dernier à Bruxelles, lors de la visite du premier ministre Li Keqiang. L’administration Trump ne cache pas son scepticisme. A l’égard du rôle de Bruxelles, mais aussi de Pékin, même si les relations entre cette dernière et Pyongyang se sont détériorées.
- Jean-Pierre Stroobants，2017年7月17日
A vital principle is at stake, too. In recent years there has been much debate in China about whether values are universal or culturally specific. Keeping quiet about Mr Liu signalled that the West tacitly agrees with Mr Xi — that there are no overarching values and the West thus has no right to comment on China’s or how they are applied. If the West is too selfish and cynical to put any store by universal values when they are flouted in China, it risks eroding them across the world and, ultimately, at home too.
Mr Liu’s aim was not to trigger upheaval, but to encourage peaceful discussion. He briefly succeeded. Hundreds of people, including prominent intellectuals, had signed the charter by the time Mr Liu was hauled away to his cell. Since then, the Communist Party’s censors and goons have stifled debate. The West must stop doing their work for them. Mr Liu’s work is, sadly, done.
- The Economist，2017年7月15日
Mr. Trump did not raise Mr. Liu’s case when he met Mr. Xi in Germany last week. And within hours of Mr. Liu’s death, Mr. Trump, asked at a news conference in Paris to give his impression of Mr. Xi, heaped praise on him, calling him a “very good man” who “wants to do what’s right for China.” Some American officials, including Nikki Haley, the ambassador to the United Nations, hailed Mr. Liu’s contribution, but Mr. Trump’s words in Paris signaled to Beijing that it need not listen.
- New York Times，2017年7月14日
Westerners besotted by the “rising China” hypothesis often make the case that while the country’s human-rights record is lamentable, it has no bearing on its economic future. Economies, they say, run on inputs, not values. If anything, they believe that China’s dictatorship confers advantages in efficiency and decisiveness that fractious democracies can only dream about.
It’s an odd argument. Autocracies are sometimes rich but never modern. Efficiency can mean doing dumb things quickly. Political control over economic resources is a recipe for corruption and capital misallocation. To this day Beijing treats its economy as an extension of state propaganda, manufacturing statistics and mistaking trophyism for development.
Vendredi, lorsque, au cours de leur conférence de presse conjointe à Paris, les présidents Donald Trump et Emmanuel Macron ont été interrogés par un journaliste chinois sur leurs impressions à propos de M. Xi, ils ont tous deux célébré « un des grands leaders de notre monde » (M. Macron), « un ami, un leader de talent, un homme très bon » (M. Trump), mais n’ont pas eu un mot pour dénoncer la mort d’un Prix Nobel de la paix en détention. Le président français a ensuite, en 131 signes sur Twitter, rendu « hommage à Liu Xiaobo, Prix Nobel de la paix, grand combattant de la liberté » et exprimé son « soutien à ses proches et à son épouse ». A Washington, le secrétaire d’Etat Rex Tillerson a appelé à la libération de Liu Xia et à son transfert en Occident.
- Le Monde，2017年7月14日（Liu Xiaobo et l’indifférence de l’Occident）
Mutiger aber zeigt sich Taiwans Präsidentin Tsai Ing-wen, und das, obwohl die Volksrepublik ein riesiges Waffenarsenal auf ihre Insel gerichtet hat. Sie schreibt: „Nur durch eine Demokratie, in der jeder Chinese Freiheit und Respekt genießt, kann China wirklich ein stolzes und mächtiges Land werden.“ Liu Xiaobo hätte es ähnlich formuliert, nur schöner.
- Benedikt Voigt，2017年7月14日
- 共青團中央，2017年7月13日（在蠟燭的emoji和文字都被禁用的時候，它的配圖是一支大蠟燭和一大張瞇眼賊笑的emoji face）
Then, at 11pm on Monday 8 December 2008, Liu Xia heard a loud knock at their door. A huddle of security agents entered, brandishing a warrant straight out of The Trial: “Suspected of the crime of _________,” the document said.
Three hundred Chinese intellectuals and activists were poised to publish Charter 08, a political manifesto calling for peaceful political reform and — crucially — the end of one-party rule in China. Liu had not initiated it, but co-authored it, gathered signatures for it and, say friends, volunteered to take the fall hoping his international fame would spare him too harsh a punishment.
“I knew there’d be big trouble,” Liu Xia later said; she had tried to dissuade him from participating. “I could only do what I’d done in the past: patiently wait for calamity to descend.”
- Tom Philips and Tania Branigan，2017年7月11日
In time, though, I came to see it as a psychological survival measure, an authoritarian-adapted version of something that prevails everywhere; the just-world hypothesis. That’s the belief, consciously or otherwise, that when things go wrong for people there must be a sensible reason behind it. He got cancer because he didn’t pray enough. She got raped because she went to a neighborhood where she should have known better. He should have been more deferential to that police officer. People believe in a just world as a psychic defense mechanism against the obvious and monstrous injustice of the universe. The government gives the impression, and much of the public seems to believe, the lines in question are clearly drawn. The problem is they’re often invisible until you accidentally blunder across them.
In Liu’s case, his past writings were dragged out to use against him. He’d written that it would take “300 years of colonialism” for China to become as civilized as Hong Kong, been an enthusiastic supporter of the U.S. war on terror, and sometimes been willfully blind about the West’s failings. That was dragged out as an excuse by many Chinese intellectuals — and some Western apologists. At no point did they explain how intemperate speech or naivety justified decades of persecution and imprisonment — it was enough to point the finger, to come up with an excuse, and to sleep comfortably at night.
Editorials in the state-operated Global Times described the democrats as “having made a failed bet.” In part, this was because of government propaganda that did everything it could to link internal dissent to the ever-present “foreign forces.” But it was also a way of reducing everything to the same cynicism with which the rest of Chinese society operates.Pretend that taking on the system was done for Western gold, rather than principle, and you could justify the compromises and corruption that you took part in every day.
- James Palmer，2017年7月11日
“There were flashing lights and hooting and cheering,” the last governor of Britain’s last colony recalls of the night he sailed out of Hong Kong for the very last time.
It was 1 July 1997 and as the royal yacht Britannia slipped out of Victoria Harbour and embarked upon its final, historic voyage across the South China Sea, Chris Patten kicked back with a glass of red wine.
When he awoke in his cabin, no longer the leader of what had overnight become the world’s most capitalist communist city, a pair of Chinese spy ships could be seen shadowing the luxurious 412ft vessel as it plotted a course for Manila.
“I think in case we turned around, went back and reconquered Hong Kong,” jokes Patten, now 73, as he remembers the day the curtains finally came down on another bit of an empire that had once ruled almost a quarter of the world.
- Tom Philips and Alex Healey, 2017年6月28日