Thanks for the questions!
The first thing I’d like to say is that AMP is not a “proprietary service”. AMP is an open source project with contributions from dozens of companies. having @aristotlebuzz among them would be great. While AMP is currently focusing on news publishing, we are super interested in enabling more use cases in the future!
Not sure what was meant with “boost a page”. What AMP supports is pre-rendering (and to a lesser extend pre-fetching). How this works is explained best in this Medium post. This also answers the bandwidth question (but CPU usage is arguably more important): AMP documents can be instructed to only load and execute critical resources during pre-rendering, which makes pre-rendering on mobile possible (otherwise bandwidth and CPU usage might and probably will be too high). You cannot do that with a general web page which is why it isn’t being done.
AMP is from the ground up designed to support responsive design (and even progressive web apps). I personally think it is a bit too much for a new project such as AMP to say: “Rewrite all your pages in AMP”. Instead many sites publish AMP in addition to their existing pages, because that minimizes their risk. I think this is a great strategy, but we’ll hopefully see more and more responsive AMP-only pages.
For the last question: AMP is an open source project that happily accepts pull requests! It is build entirely on top of the web platform, which is a great testament to the extensible web. Not everything has to be a formal standard first. It is much better to try things as an application of existing standard and then standardize the stuff that cannot be expressed in terms of the existing platform, when it turned out to be useful. In a less format way, AMP is already a standard. It has a specification and an open source implementation.
To close I’d like to re-iterate that we’d love to collaborate on making AMP useful for additional use cases and that it is worth looking at AMP’s features beyond raw load time improvements: Embeddability and pre-rendering. Both of these cannot be simply done with arbitrary web content, which is why performance optimization in itself (while awesome!), isn’t everything.