Signing Git Commits with Yubikey

Thieves are compromising software with malicious code that steals cryptocurrencies. If you build software, you need to protect your clients from these attackers. At TokenSoft, we take this threat seriously and we practice what we preach. This piece outlines one aspect of our best practices.

So far there have been several attempts to compromise software hosted by NPM, a popular package manager for the Javascript community. Attackers gain control of a commonly used software package with an innocent name like event-stream or electron-native-notify and then push malicious updates to NPM.

These compromised packages are then automatically pulled into your own…


Making employee stock options more liquid with Ethereum

The following is a simplified illustration of how the technical features of ERC-1404 could facilitate token transfers and affect employee incentives. The examples provided showcase early opportunities for industry collaboration with the acknowledgment that several key technical and legal components remain open questions. The article is not intended to provide legal, tax, or other advice about employee stock option plan administration or serve as a recommendation to move stock option administration to the blockchain at this time. …


When handling digital assets like Bitcoin, Ethereum, ERC-1404, and ERC20 tokens, the first challenge is ensuring that private keys controlling the assets stay, well, private. The threat of theft is especially severe for institutions handling large quantities of crypto assets such as exchanges, investment funds, and digital asset issuers. Over a billion dollars were lost to crypto hacks in 2018 alone.

So when we built TokenSoft’s Knox Wallet, we had to find a way to keep secret keys safe with an air-gapped, defense-in-depth wallet architecture. …


Blockchains allow us to exercise ownership of real-world assets in a form that has not been common for a millennium. This form of ownership is called allodial title, and it works where traditional legal title does not.

Over the last decade, the dominant blockchain narrative has moved from digital cash to digital gold to code as contract law. Bitcoin has proven its mettle as an (extremely volatile) global store of value. Various companies have begun anchoring real-world assets like company stocks to the Ethereum blockchain using a combination of blockchain smart contracts and traditional legal contracts.

Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Assets

In the blockchain economy…


This post is a response to a Medium article by Jimmy Song called “The Truth About Smart Contracts.”

Something about that article didn’t seem quite right, so I’m using this post to define my thoughts. First, let’s summarize Song’s argument. Song is an experienced Bitcoin developer who has worked at Paxos and Armory, so I want to take his perspective seriously.

The Good

Smart contracts are executed by many computers running the same known algorithm and checking each other’s calculation: no third party needs to be trusted to perform the calculation correctly. Trustless contract execution is a new, powerful property.

The Bad

Unfortunately, smart…


In the software world, SaaS is the air we breathe. It’s everywhere, but so are the huge problems that come with it. We need solutions, and cryptoeconomics may help us build them.

We all know and love SaaS: the $1–100 per month web apps that do useful things like send emails, stream movies, back up our photos, manage schedules, and so on. Sometimes SaaS is exactly what customers need. But normally businesses choose to build SaaS because they know it lets them:

  • Earn revenue proportional to value by charging for continued usage
  • Protect their digital assets from theft by placing…


Over the past few years, I’ve talked with a number of executives who run large software-driven businesses or heavily integrate software into their operations. A particular phrase has come up in almost every conversation, something both very important to the success of their business and difficult to achieve.

They want a single source of truth for their important business data: a unified, complete record of everything that matters to keep their people on the same page.

I don’t think that this value proposition only appeals to the largest enterprises: everyone who uses digital systems spends a lot of time or…


(originally posted on LinkedIn)

Every growing industry faces challenges in defining its terms. But we’ve got it really bad in this one. I expect popular usage will determine the eventual winners, but that usage is created by trend setters. Here’s are some of my thoughts and a quick take on google trends for each term.

The Technology


(ribbon logos: so trendy right now)

I’ve got two great announcements today.

First, Element Robot is now an America Makes member. It’s an honor to join the most exciting network of companies in additive manufacturing, and we look forward to collaborating with other members.

Second, I’m announcing an 8 month Skyforge pilot program that we’ve put together with several significant companies in the additive manufacturing / rapid prototyping space. You may recall that I’ve been talking with additive leaders at a wide variety of enterprises: service bureaus, contract manufacturers, universities, and OEMs.

We came up with a remarkably consistent list of challenges that these enterprises are…


(and why it’s not working)

Something has gone wrong with 3D printing, also known as additive manufacturing, or AM.

ExOne, Stratasys, and 3D Systems have all been having a really bad year. Or two.

Three of the biggest 3D printing companies have been pummeled by the public markets — and they probably deserved it. The market has reacted to several years of over-promises and hype, such as a printer in every home, 3D printed gourmet foods, or airplanes that 3D print other airplanes while flying. I wish that last link were satire.

Even if these ideas made sense, they still have been blown far out of proportion. I’ve seen more articles on 3D printing (billion dollar industry) than on the…

Chris Walker

Software / cybercoins / 3d printing. Sold last startup. Discovers opportunities, builds teams, executes creative solutions.

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