US Healthcare Expenditure, a Comparison with other Countries and Healthcare System Structures.

By Rei Tan

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Source: Healthcare Global

The healthcare system in the United States is far from simple to understand. The majority of its complexity is owed to the heterogeneity of financing sources. Unlike many other countries, the US lacks a single-payer system when it comes to health care policies such as insurance. This multi-payer framework, combined with the comparative lack of cost control for health care procedures and services, contributes significantly to the astonishing difference in healthcare costs between the US and the rest of the world.

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Per capita health expenditure in selected countries in 2018. Forbes

US Healthcare Expenditure

As of 2018, the US spent a whopping 16.9% of its GDP on healthcare according to the statistics provided by OECD. The US tops the list for healthcare expenditure among OECD countries with these figures. Yet, it seems that despite the heavy spending on healthcare, Americans benefit from a relatively less robust healthcare infrastructure than citizens of other countries. Healthcare data from OECD Healthcare Statistics in 2015 reported the number of practicing physicians in the US as 19% lower than the OECD median. Similarly, the population of practicing nurses in the US was 20% below the OECD median. To add insult to injury, the US had far fewer hospital beds dedicated to inpatient acute care, and Americans had a shorter average length of hospital stay. …


Defining Essential Workers, OSHA & CDC’s Efforts, and the Amazon Problem.

By Havish Gattu

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Source: The Guardian

Who are Essential Workers?

In the wake of the terrifying COVID-19 pandemic, communities all over the United States have come together with a fabulous display of unity as they praise the heroic work of our essential workers. A great example of our country’s support was when New Yorkers had organized a massive citywide clap with the help of the hashtag “#ClapBecauseWeCareNYC” on twitter. …


Single-use bioprocessing and it’s benefits, limits and future scope

By Pooja Bhatnagar

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Figure 1: Single-use bioreactor (Source: www.genengnews.com)

Introduction

The process of manufacturing biopharmaceutical medicines is extremely complicated, at best. Take a moment to imagine what a biologics manufacturing plant looks like.

Picture a large, sterile facility filled with many rows of enormous stainless steel bioreactor tanks bolted to the floor, connected to an intricate system of steel pipes snaking around them, and countless complicated measurement gadgets connected to those pipes and reactors.

It would probably look similar to the facility depicted below:

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Figure 2: Traditional bioprocessing plant (Source: www.wsj.com)

Depending on the size of the facility, each of those stainless steel bioreactors can hold from 100L to a whopping 20,000L of material at once for bioprocessing, which simply put, is any process that uses biological components to obtain the desired product. …

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