Satoshi suggested users to run SPV wallets, not full nodes. Only miners were expected to run full nodes. Satoshi envision server farms.
For most of the past 6 years, the blocks were partially filled of transactions and partially empty. But rarely were the blocks filled with spam.
You do not need millions of billions of nodes to secure the network. It is already secure with the tens of thousands of current nodes.
Increasing the block size will not decrease the number of nodes. Most people can run full nodes:
$100 = 4TB disk = 10+ years blockchain = 10 transaction fees on BTC (Do you see anything wrong?)
Next year, the 4TB disk will be even cheaper.
Visa handles 2,000 tps. Search for and read:
“gigablock testate researchers mine the world’s first 1gb block”. 1 GB block running on testnet demonstrates over 10,000 transactions per second: The article says:
“we are not going from 1MB to 1GB tomorrow — The purpose of going so high is to prove that it can be done — no second layer is necessary”
Search for and watch on Youtube:
“Peter Rizun, Andrew Stone — 1 GB Block Tests — Scaling Bitcoin Stanford.”
At 13:55 in that video, Rizun said that he thinks that Visa level can be achieved with a 4-core/16GB machine with better implementations (modifying the code to take advantage of parallelization.)
Search for and read:
“The Future of “Bitcoin Cash:” An Interview with Bitcoin ABC lead developer Amaury Séchet”
He said: “fixing malleability and enabling Layer 2 solutions will happen”
So, BCH will have on-chain and off-chain scaling and it’s already much more scalable today, even if BCH has the same amount of transactions as BTC.
Segwit is not a block size increase. It removes stuff from the block so that more transactions can be squeezed in.
An analogy of this scaling debate is this:
You have a car that is going 50 kph. The passengers (Bitcoin users) want to go 100 kph today, but eventually in the future, they want to go 200 kph The car is capable of going 100 kph but not 200 kph. Big blockers are saying: step on the accelerator and go 100 kph. Small blockers are saying: Wait until we build a new car, which will go 200 kph. Meanwhile, the passengers are stuck at 50 kph.
Not only do Big blockers think that the car can simply go faster by stepping on the accelerator, they have already shown that the car can go even faster by adding a turbocharger (even bigger blocks) and making sure that every cylinder is firing (parallel process on multiple CPU cores). In addition, they are willing to use the new car if and when it gets built.