Network Protocols, Messages, and You

So you want to learn about the inner mechanisms of networking huh? I can’t blame you, it’s an intriguing subject which, as time goes on, will only become more and more reverent in your life. However, such an undertaking is no easy task, which is where this reading comes into play, and while it would be next to impossible to fully teach the entire system in three minutes, I can hopefully help you learn a basic understanding which you can use to use for future reference.


TCP/IP MODEL

The TCP/IP model of networking is an open standard protocol suite, meaning the system is freely open to the public for use. The Protocol Operation for sending/recieveing a file goes as shows:

  1. First, the data being sent to the user is prepared.
  2. After that, the HTTP header is implemented in the front of the data set; this data in of itself contains information, including the HTTP version used on the server and a status code proving it has info for the end client.
  3. Then, the HTTP application sends the data to the TCP transport layer. The TCP transport layer essentially is used to manage singular conversations between two ends, in this instance, the web server and the web client.
  4. Next, the IP info is added, which assigns the appropriate sender and receiver to the data set.
  5. The Ethernet protocol then adds information to both ends of the IP packet, or a frame, which is then stripped off once it reaches the router. The data is analyzed by the router and is used to determine the best route of action for the data. The router adds a new frame and sends it off to a neighboring router going in the direction of the destination. This process is repeated until the data has reached the intended final location.
  6. Finally, each protocol header is processed and removed in the opposite order they were added. After each layer is removed, all that remains is the intended information for the receiver.

OSI MODEL

The OSI Model is the second type of model commonly used among network engineers. The OSI Model consists of seven layers:

  1. Physical: Describes the means to activate and maintain the physical connections for the bit transmissions.
  2. Data Link: Describes methods for exchanging data frames between devices over a media.
  3. Network: provides services to exchange the individual pieces of data to and fro end devices.
  4. Transport: Defines services to send the communications to and fro end devices
  5. Sessions: Provides services to the presentation layer in order to manage the exchanges a and organize the data
  6. Presentation: provides representation of the data between the application layer services.
  7. Application: uses protocols for communications between the processes.

The OSI model is very similar to the TCP/IP model in that each OSI layer could be represented in one of the layers in a TCP/IP model. But because the OSI model separates the Data link and Physical layer from the Network Access, it is used used when referring to the lower layers.


ENCAPSULATION

Encapsulation is the act of bundling data with the methods to operate on said data. The methods packaged with the data, you may remember, is the information given in the TCP/IP method (Data to TCP to IP to Ethernet). De-encapsulation is the exact same process, but mirrored. However, encapsulation is just a fragment of the bigger picture of message segmentation. Message segmentation is, simply put, is fragmenting a message into data sets. This allows for flow inward and outwards. If the data was a constant flow inwards, it would be impossible to flow outwards on the same network. Each fragment is labeled with a number and where it is going. That way, information is sent and arrives in the proper order, otherwise, the information would be jumbled due to the lack of ordering. This and everything above makes it clear that formatting in network systems in extremely important, and without it, most connections would be impossible to achieve.

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