JavaScript Basics: Block Scope in ES6

Let and Const keywords, and the Temporal Dead Zone

Dan Park
Dan Park
Apr 24, 2017 · 6 min read

Note: I recommend reading my previous blog post on JavaScript Execution Context and Lexical Environments first.

We actually take for granted that pre-ES6, variables were almost exclusively “function scoped” (the other side being scoped globally). If a variable was set anywhere in the function (e.g., inside a for loop or an if statement), that variable would be accessible within that function. In ES6, there is now block scope.

Block Scope

Block scope is not an unfamiliar concept to those who come from other languages (C++, Java, Perl, etc.). However, in JavaScript, it was made available through the let and const keywords in ES6.

In short, block scoped variables are accessible via identifier resolution anywhere within the block but not outside it.

To understand that definition, it is helpful to understand what a “block” is. Quite simply, a block is anything within curly braces: {}.

See below:

As you can see, blocks can be nested (and quite often so). The important aspect of block scoping and how it affects identifier resolution is that as the code is being run line-by-line, when it encounters a block, it enters into a new LexicalEnvironment. When it leaves the block, it goes back to the surrounding LexicalEnvironment. See here.

Within this newly created LexicalEnvironment, a declarative Environment Record is created (remember this?). The abstract operation for this procedure is called BlockDeclarationInstantiation (ECMAScript 13.2.14). It is within this environment record that our soon-to-be-introduced let and const keywords are bound.

Food for thought: What happens when both let and var is used within the same block? How does var persist outside the block scope if upon leaving the block, it exits the LexicalEnvironment?

Check out the code below:

  console.log(b);   // 20
console.log(a); // ReferenceError: a is not defined!

The reason why b is "remembered" is because b was never bound to the LexicalEnvironment. Instead, it was bound to the Execution Context's VariableEnvironment. Pre-ES6, there was no distinction between the two Lexical Environments; however, now, var statements are bound to the VariableEnvironment for var-identifier resolution. This is obviously because var is still scoped at the function level.

Again, remember, for lexically scoped declarations (let and const), identifier resolution allows scope chain lookup as usual as long as the block has not yet been exited (i.e., leaving the current LexicalEnvironment). This is why inner blocks can access let and const declarations outside its block. However, you cannot access declarations inside a block from the outside looking in.

This is block scope in a nutshell. But let and const is not done with you just yet. They have particular nuances from var outside the block scoping.

Let and Const keywords

Generally speaking, let can replace var in most cases. In fact, let gives greater flexibility in variable declarations because it is scoped closer to the actual operation.

For example:

// using 'let'
for (let j = 0; j < 10; j++) {
console.log(i); // 10
console.log(j); // ReferenceError: j is not defined!

As seen above, since j is scoped to the block, you can use j elsewhere in your function without consequence to the for loop. The reason why you should favor let in these use-cases is for the same reason why programmers avoid declaring global variables. This is simply an extension of the Principle of Least Privilege (i.e., only have access to info as necessary).

const is actually a very special keyword introduced with ES6. It creates an immutable binding to a particular value or object. The term "immutable binding" is specific because it does not prevent mutations on the object bound to the const keyword, but does prevent re-assignment.

See below:

// However, to an object
const b = [];
const c = { bar: 10 };
b.push('2'); = 20; = 30;
console.log(b); // [ '2' ]
console.log(c); // { bar: 30, foo: 20 }

Note: if you need a refresher on why the first example (a = 10 to a = 2) is considered a re-assignment (forbidden) and not a mutation (permissible), check out my previous blog post: Evaluation Strategy: by value vs. by reference.

It is important to distinguish between true immutability (cannot mutate the object) from the immutable binding that const gives us to avoid misconceptions. As such, const should be used when you know that the assignment/binding is permanent to that block scope (const is still a block scoped declaration). If this explanation hasn't made it clear, but const must be assigned to something when it is declared (i.e., const a; will not work!)

Now here’s the weird part.

Remember hoisting and its effect on your code? Look!

foo(); // undefined

You will get undefined because bar is hoisted during the Creation Phase of the Execution Context. However, the same code with let:

foo(); // ReferenceError: bar is not defined!

Yeah, yeah, what’s going on now. JavaScript doing its thing again. Let me just get this out there: this is not because let declarations are not hoisted! In fact, they are hoisted to the top of the block scope. But then why the ReferenceError?

Enter the Temporal Dead Zone. No really, this is a thing.

Temporal Dead Zone, TDZ for short

The naming convention aside, this rule is actually simpler in practice than theory.

In short, it is because of the temporal dead zone that trying to access let and const statements before they have been declared results in a ReferenceError.

The contrast between var and let/const can be seen during the Creation Phase of the Execution Context.

During the Creation Phase:

  • var is hoisted then initialized as undefined.
  • let/const is hoisted but is not initialized!

It is only during the Execution Phase where let/const receive their assignments!

  • var is assigned the value (if there is one).
  • let is assigned the value (if no value, undefined).
  • const is assigned the value (but requires the assigned value).

The TDZ is truly a temporal restriction not a lexical restriction. See below:

let bar = 'funny';foo(); // 'funny'

Essentially, during the Execution Phase of the Execution Context, when variables are typically assigned their values, the TDZ ends when it reaches the let/const declaration.

But why the temporal dead zone?

There are two oft-cited reasons (the second reason more important than the first):

  1. TDZ prevents reliance on hoisting to make code function (poor coding style). It throws errors to alert the programmer to a possible unintended access before declaration situation.
  2. TDZ allows for better semantic reasoning surrounding const. Allen Wirfs-Brock, the project editor for ES6, notes, "the motivating feature for TDZs is to provide a rational semantics for const. There was significant technical discussion of that topic and TDZs emerged as the best solution." See Link.

The second reason makes sense when you consider what const is supposed to do -- that is, create an immutable binding. If const can only be bound once, then it would not make sense for the const variable to follow the "var assignment to undefined" pattern during the Creation Phase. const should not and cannot be bound to undefined then later changed to the proper binding!

To maintain consistency, let was also affected by TDZ though let does not "require" TDZ to maintain semantic rationale.


There are many interesting consequences of ES6 that affect identifier resolution and scope. Particularly with the introduction of block scoping through the let and const keywords, identifier resolution through the Lexical Environments are more nuanced than before. It is important to keep up with these changes to understand some errors that may be thrown as a result of misconceptions of block scope.

Again, my hope is to communicate a more digestable block of text than the formulaic script of the ECMAScript specifications. I plan on covering some React/Redux posts in the future as well. I don’t plan on departing from the hole that is the ECMAScript docs forever, but it may be good to change things up!

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Dan Park

Written by

Dan Park

Husband, student of JavaScript, love React! ex-attorney with J.D. from Georgetown Law

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