Google still saves plenty of goodies for its own programmers. Internally, the company has a probably unparalleled tool chest of ML prosthetics, not the least of which is an innovation it has been using for years but announced only recently — the Tensor Processing Unit. This is a microprocessor chip optimized for the specific quirks of running machine language programs, similar to the way as Graphics Processing Units are designed with the single purpose of speeding the calculations that throw pixels on a display screen. Many thousands (only God and Larry Page probably know how many) are inside servers in the company’s huge data centers. By super-powering its neural net operations, TPU’s give Google a tremendous advantage. “We could not have done RankBrain without it,” says Dean.