I can see a case where the intellectually honest people who are not black might say that they can never fully appreciate what it means to be a black person in America. They will say this in spite of their compassion and willingness to empathize because there is no substitute for direct experience and the shock of the emotional situation on the ground.
I often say this to women about being women. The chemistry is obviously very different. The social upbringing totally different. And no amount of imagining on my part can stand in for the experience of being a woman for a couple of decades.
The best we can hope for is to appreciate that there is a different place to stand when we look at things.