Some notes on the economic benefits of undocumented migrants to a native economy
There is a debate occurring at the moment as to the dangers of undocumented migration and the harm that it can have on the native economy (Barrett, 2016). In the course of this project I intend to demonstrate that an increase in labour allocation created by undocumented migrants will create net benefits to the native economy resulting in an overall increase in employment.
The term illegal immigrant has drawn criticism from some groups for dehumanising individuals and being unnecessarily vague (Head, 2014). For the purposes of this paper I will use the term “undocumented migrant” instead as this provides a more specific identification of the issues. By using the term undocumented rather than illegal it clarifies that the workers do not have the necessary paperwork, for example visas or passports, to work in the country, rather than those who may be involved in criminal activities, such as prostitution or smuggling.
It is intended that this work will demonstrate that while on the face of it undocumented migration may decrease employment opportunities for native workers it actually increases them. This is done through a long term process of reducing wage costs, which in turn reduce production costs and thereby prices, we will be assuming for the purposes here that firms want to increase demand in their goods rather than maximise profits by producing the same output at a cheaper price and keeping the additional finance.
Once prices have been decreased it creates an increase in demand which stimulates the skilled labour sector who are required to dispose of the additional output into the market.
It will be further argued, in brief, that while undocumented migrants may ostensibly take jobs from low skilled workers due to a failure in the employment market to achieve market clearance and a reluctance or inability of domestic workers to move to where there are available roles they are filling positions which would otherwise have remained vacant.
As detailed in the literature review several theories will be used to answer the question. Firstly, the labour allocation of the market will be assessed using general equilibrium theory. This will look at how undocumented migrants create an increase in the overall allocation of labour services available to the market, thereby creating a shift in the general equilibrium point.
This will be followed by demonstrating how based on Walras’ Law the increased allocation within the labour market will result in a shift in the wages employers are willing to pay staff. This will also look at the principal-agent model, however, in this instance it will be the employers who are in receipt of information which the workers are not, due to the nature of undocumented workers being unable to gain access to other markets or self-employment in many instances, and as such are able to set the wages they are willing to pay.
In this instance it may be assumed that by firms being able to set lower wage rates for their workers they are able to reduce the cost of the goods which they produce.
As the price of goods reduces, or the output increases, it will create a shift in the supply and demand curves for that good, due to a change in consumer preferences. This will allow for an understanding of whether firms will need to increase employment to satisfy further demand needs, or potentially for other reasons to ensure technical efficiency is maintained, leading to increased employment opportunities.
This will be tested by applying a cost benefit analysis to the model to look at how the externalities involved in the changes will alter the overall social welfare, as explained in the literature review. Due to the debate surrounding immigration, documented and undocumented, these externalities will also focus on public perception as well as the secondary data provided.
The public perceptions and the data will be used to look at how there is a gap in the employment market in low skilled positions which requires filling to allow for skilled positions to be created. This will be supported with ONS figures and analysed using suitable theories as shown.
The General Equilibrium model creates a single unifying framework through the combination of neoclassical consumer choice theory with exchange and production. In essence it demonstrates that by creating equilibria in the markets they may achieve optimum human welfare (Mackintosh and Meads, 2010)
General equilibrium looks at the market as being a closed and independent system. In this situation equilibrium is caused by a wide range of interactions within the market place (Cardenete, 2012).
When a general equilibrium outcome is achieved it is considered to be the Pareto-Optimum outcome for the economy as a whole, whereby one party cannot make improvements without making the other worse off (Simonetti and Santos, 2010).
When carrying out an analysis of the labour market through the perspective of general equilibrium it is necessary to impose certain “laws” to ensure that the economy is a closed system. In this instance we will be using Walras Law, which states that the value of the total consumption of available resources must be equal to the value of the endowment (Cardente, 2012). The value of the use of labour must therefore match the value of the amount of labour in the system.
Walras stated that general equilibrium trading will only occur when a set of prices is agreed upon at which excess demand is zero across all markets. To demonstrate this Walras suggested a situation in an auction where the auctioneer calls out prices and the buyers make offers as to which prices they are willing to buy and sell at. When demand exceeds supply the auctioneer will raise prices and when supply exceeds demand they will lower prices, until after a period of “groping”, or as Walras termed it “tatonnement”, they reach a market clearing price (Mackintosh and Meads, 2010).
The above figure demonstrates Walras’ law in action. If the auctioneer starts at price Pa then there will be excess demand equal to Za. The auctioneer then increases the price to Pb to counteract this excess demand, however, this will the lead to a point of negative demand at Zb, where the price is too high. This process is repeated at Pc as the auctioneer “gropes” for the right price until finally reaching equilibrium at Pe. (Brown, 2001)
The above diagram represents the total allocation of labour and capital services in the marketplace, in this instance using a simple two firm production economy. Point A represents a potential point of general equilibrium. Between the points B and C on the contract curve is the core of the exchange economy, where all possible Paretto efficient outcomes than can be reached through voluntary exchange are represented. This demonstrates the positions where one party can be made better off without making the other worse off (Mackintosh and Meads, 2010). The core shows the positions where firms can still increase their allocation of labour resources without detracting from the resources of others.
To give an accurate response to the question of whether undocumented migration creates employment I will focus on the long-run equilibrium. In the short run economy only one of the factors can be amended. As it could be assumed that an increase in undocumented migration could lead to an increase in capital inflow by increasing the marginal product of capital, and thereby the overall return on investment associated with the production, it is important to focus on the long run for the purposes of this debate (Kulolkarn, 2008).
I will also use the principal-agent model when looking at the long run implications of labour allocation, whereby one party wants to ensure that another acts in accordance with their interests when the second party holds information of which they are unaware (Simonetti and Santos, 2010).
This model presents an issue in so far as the two parties have separate goals, for example workers may want to put in minimum effort for maximum pay while employers wants maximum effort for low pay. This conflict creates a situation where one party could take advantage of the other through the exploitation of asymmetric information, one party holds information which the other does not have access to (Simonetti and Santos, 2010).
To overcome this issue many firms employ a variety of contracts which are designed to safeguard theirs’ and the workers’ rights, ensuring fair pay and productivity. It can allow firms to negotiate lower pay rates for workers and therefore make savings in its overall production costs.
Provided the firm is willing to pass on its savings to consumers, rather than maximising its own profits, these reduced costs and the subsequent increase in outputs create a shift in the supply and demand in the long run economy.
As the price of goods reduces and consumers start to buy more it creates an outward shift in the demand curve from D to D1. As demand increases so does supply as it shifts from S to S1. This in turn leads to an increase in output from Qe to Qe1 and an increase in the long run equilibrium price from Qe to Qe1 (Simmonetti et al, 2010).
Using a cost-benefit analysis, which expresses individual preferences via monetary gain or loss through weighing up costs and benefits, it is possible to identify whether the increased allocation of undocumented migrants provides a net benefit to society as a whole (Anand, 2010).
Using the utilitarian social welfare function, where social welfare is determined through the sum of individual utilities, given that each individual’s utility is measured equally, it is possible to determine the net benefits to consumers through the changing surpluses of both consumers and producers (Anand, 2010). The utilitarian approach focuses on maximising the total surplus of both producers and consumers. Once the data has been calculated it can then be used to determine what the overall costs and benefits of a particular situation or decision have had on social welfare (Anand, 2010)
In the above diagram D is the market demand curve. Meanwhile Sp represents the private market supply curve, where firms only take into account their private costs. The supply curve Ss shows how the supply curve will shift in firms taking into account the negative externalities, where the actions of one economic agent affects the welfare of others in ways which are not directly reflected in the market prices, of their production costs (Simonetti et al, 2010). The gap between these two curves measures the externalities. The greater the externalities the less benefit to society.
Description and analysis of evidence
There have already been a number of studies focusing on the effect of undocumented immigration on the employment market. For the purposes of answering the question there are several which I will be drawing from. This will allow for a comprehensive review of the data, and in particular due to the contentious nature of the topic an opportunity to compare and contrast different information to provide a comprehensive answer to the question.
In the first of these articles a simple general equilibrium model was used to answer complaints that undocumented migrants negatively affected the employment market (Grossman, 1984). The article itself is more than 30 years old and as such the overall numbers of undocumented migrants have changed since its publication, and therefore the potential impact. It still provides a useful theory for using a general equilibrium model to analyse the effects of undocumented migration on the employment of native workers.
The study showed that the effect of undocumented migrants in the market was determined by the number employed in each sector. If for example one sector has a significant number of undocumented migrants working in it then this could lead to a decrease in employment in that sector while creating an increase in employment in the domestic sector for native labour (Grossman, 1984).
It is important to note that a key consideration raised in the study is that of minimum wage implications for unskilled labour. It is assumed, and there has been no evidence suggested in any of the following studies used to answer this question to contradict this claim, that undocumented migrants will potentially be paid below the minimum wage (Grossman, 1984). This creates a situation whereby it may make it more attractive for certain employers to employ undocumented migrants and set a market clearing price for labour below the legal limit (Grossman, 1984).
In support of this study I will also be using a study into the cost benefit analysis of immigration and the effects which it has on the skilled labour market of the domestic market. This study draws on polls into public perceptions regarding immigration to identify positive and negative externalities associated with immigration as well as specific market costs, as will be detailed in the discussion section (West, 2010)
Secondary data from labour and immigration statistics will be used to corroborate the economic theories being used.
As confirmed by the Office of National Statistics (ONS) there is limited information on undocumented migrants in the marketplace: “By its very nature it is impossible to quantify accurately the number of people who are in the country illegally. For this reason, ONS does not produce estimates on the size of the illegal migrant population.” (ONS a, undated p1).
While it is hard to accurately state the number of undocumented immigrants entering a country Home Office estimates for 2011 said the number residing in the UK in 2001 “has a central estimate of 430,000, and a range…of 310,000 to 570,000” (Woodbridge, 2004 p1)
The study documented several methods which can be used to estimate the undocumented migrant population of the United Kingdom, some of which it concludes would not be suitable due to the nature of the data capturing methods.
The report generated data from direct measures, including through the use of surveys to create a “best guess” approach to the numbers involved. It concluded, however, that despite providing some valuable information they relied too much on unsubstantiated opinion and were therefore unverifiable (Woodbridge, 2004).
Instead the report suggested that some “indirect” methods of data collection may provide a more accurate picture of the number of undocumented migrants (Woodbridge, 2004). After evaluating several different types of indirect data collection methods the report’s writers decided that the most suitable for use, based on the information available to them, was the “residual method”, which compares the information on legal migration with that of the foreign born population to provide an estimate based on the difference. (Woodbridge, 2004).
The variation of the “residual method” used by the research team was based on a similar method used by the United States Census Bureau, with certain adaptations. Firstly, it required that the team create a methodology for how to define migrants. After dismissing the use of ethnicity or the legal basis of their residency, they used a “country of birth basis” (Woodbridge, 2004).
The report then continued by using stock data on migrants, where possible. The report then broke down the data into different groupings.
- The Foreign Born, this was information taken from the 2001 census and included the total population of the UK who are foreign born, but not including those born in the European Economic Area, who have an automatic right to live and work in the UK.
- Permanent legal migrants. To calculate the figure the team had to combine data from the 2001 census and incorporate information from flow data, the information which flows through the system and may be taken from various sources, including Home Office figures going back to 1970.
- Temporary migrants. This figure includes all those who have a legal right to stay in the UK for a set period of time which ran until the end of April 2001. This group includes migrants who have been granted refugee status but not settlement, students and those listed under the Exceptional Leave to Remain (ELR) mandate.
- Quasi legal migrants. This includes those migrants who, while not having a defined legal right to remain, are authorised to stay in the UK for the time being. This group for example includes those awaiting either a response to asylum applications or appeals to refusals. (Woodbridge. 2004)
Once the necessary data had been compiled it then proved necessary to determine the numbers of migrants who had emigrated, these figures were taken from the International Passenger Survey which is a sample survey of people entering and leaving the UK through main airports, sea routes and the Channel Tunnel, and the number of deaths within the foreign born population (Woodbridge, 2004)
Having clarified the limitations of the data, including a difficulty in ensuring that all legal resident foreign born citizens are counted due to changes in legislation between Commonwealth and EEA citizens entering the country and their rights to stay being confirmed, the team was able to deduct the figures gathered from the total foreign born population on record to generate the most accurate data which they could on the size of the undocumented migrant population in the UK.
ONS labour figures provide further secondary data on the number of people employed in different sectors and the vacancies which remain in the market, see appendixes two and three. This data demonstrates that there is a significant distribution variation in the vacancies in skilled and unskilled positions, providing, as will be shown, supporting evidence that there is a need for further labour resources in unskilled positions.
It will also show the breakdown of employment by sector, which is necessary to show where undocumented migrants can be best allocated to ensure that they have minimal crowding out effect on native workers, where an increase in the purchase of resources i.e. labour alters the price of the services making it an uncompetitive market that others are unable to afford to enter (Parkin, 1990) and how due to a strong employment market the vacancies which are available are unlikely to be filled by domestic workers.
According to employment figures there were 31.41 million people in work in the UK in April. There were a further 1.7million people registered as not in work but actively seeking and 8.87 million aged between 16 and 64 who were not classified as in work and were not seeking or available for work) (ONS a, 2016).
Due to our inability to know the reasons why the 8.87million people are unable to work they will be discounted from calculations.
This leaves a total available allocation of 33.11 million people in the UK labour market. The box below represents this allocation of resources in the market based on the figures. Between points X and Y is the core, whereby any increase in the use of the labour resource by one party will not diminish the use by another, the Paretto optimal outcomes.
Capital Services K
Capital Services K
Once the additional number of undocumented migrants, between 310,000 to 570,000 (Woodbridge, 2004) are added it increases the overall allocation of labour resources in the market from Ob to Ob1. This has the effect of shifting the allocation and increasing the size of the core from X/Y to X1/1. This gives an indication that the greater allocation of labour supply ensures that there is an increased amount of Paretto optimal outcomes within the marketplace for the use of labour resources.
Capital Services K
Capital Services K
This increase in the Paretto optimal outcomes means that the market economy can reach equilibria in the labour market across a wider range. Once this happens firms are able to start setting the prices at which they are willing to pay staff at a lower rate than previously as they are able to find more substitutes for the roles than they could have done under the initial allocation.
Using Walras’ Law this can then been seen to have the effect of reducing the price which employers are willing to pay for the labour resources available to them due to the increased supply, we are assuming at this stage that demand has remained constant as the impact of the additional labour force has not yet been introduced into the long run economy.
At this stage the increase in labour supply through undocumented migration has created a shift to the left from S to S1. As demand has remained the same in order to meet the equilibrium point for the quantity of labour available the equilibrium price which firms are willing to pay for it must decrease from Pe to Pe1, representing an overall drop in the levels of wages.
As stated by Walra’s Law firms will “grope” for the best price at which they can clear the market at this stage. When the demand for employees exceeds supply, when the allocation is smaller for example prior to undocumented migrants being counted, suppliers will pay a higher price. Once the allocation has increased however if the supply of labour resource exceeds demand it will further drive down wage costs as firms will not be prepared to pay the higher rates which they had previously (Mackintosh and Meads, 2010).
The diminishing wage rates can also be shown to meet the criteria of the principal-agent model. This model is used to demonstrate how the principal, normally the employer, wants to ensure that the agent, the workers, are operating in the principal’s best interest. In the standard model it can be the case that the worker will have information which the principal does not, how much work they are actually carrying out, and that both principal and agent will have competing agendas, the worker wants maximum pay for minimum work and the employer wants maximum work for minimum pay (Simonetti and Santos, 2010).
Due to their undocumented nature workers are more open to exploitation by some employers who have a greater knowledge of the workplace and legislation surrounding it. These employers may also have knowledge of how to ensure that should the worker create any issues they are reported to the relevant authorities. The workers themselves tend to end up working low paid, low skilled jobs in this “underground” economy due to a lack of options, but also due to a lack of knowledge of, and access to, worker’s rights (Becker, 2011)
The undocumented workers however have no such additional knowledge. They may, as with documented workers, believe that they can gain maximum pay while carrying out minimum work, however, they cannot be sure that their employers will not discover this and cause serious repercussions. This is a version of the “moral hazard” associated with the principal agent model where one party can take advantage of asymmetric information to act in a way which is against the best interests of the other party, in this instance potentially paying them wages below the legal limit (Simonetti and Santos, 2010)
With the wages set particularly low for undocumented workers it has the additional impact of reducing the production costs for those firms employing them. When there is an excess of labour, i.e. when there is not full employment, businesses are able to make choices based on the costs of the labour resources available to them. It could be assumed at this point that firms will be willing to lay off documented workers who can demand a higher rate of pay in favour of those who will cost them less. It is worth noting at this stage that evidence demonstrates that full employment is unlikely to occur in normal economic circumstances and when it does is often only for a short period (Keynes, 1967).
Undocumented migrants are normally engaged in low skilled, low paid work, particularly in labour intensive industries such as the service sector and agriculture (Grossman, 1984). The undocumented migrants therefore may work in the industries where they create excess output, however, they are unlikely to work in the sectors which dispose of it.
Based on the figures in appendix three the number of vacancies in low skilled positions was far in excess of those for skilled roles (ONS b, 2016), as an example there were 72,275 documented vacancies in process, plant and machine operative roles and a total of 86,092 available vacancies in elementary unskilled or low skilled roles (ONS b, 2016). With the employment rate running at some of the highest levels for more than thirty years an alternative approach needs to be taken to fill these gaps in the labour market (ONS a, 2016).
Keynes suggested that the free-market economic theory that markets would reach an equilibrium where they would be cleared was incorrect. One of the reasons suggested was that labour was not mobile enough to meet fluctuating geographical demand, for example moving from an agricultural economy in the countryside to industrial in the cities (Sloman et al, 2012).
If we take this suggestion as correct then the mobility of undocumented migrants to work in different areas of the country could be seen as a means by which to fill existing opportunities rather than take jobs from native workers who would otherwise have had them. This has been particularly seen in the employment of undocumented workers in the agricultural sector, where the flexibility of movement proved essential for some farmers to ensure that perishable harvests could be handled, and thereby that the demand for them could be met (Taylor and Espenshade, 1987)
A number of studies have been carried out to assess the economic costs and benefits of immigration, which in part focus on this need to fill employment gaps and the resulting effects on employment. Due to the nature of the subject these often rely on public opinion rather than hard data. They gauge the people’s perceptions of the externalities surrounding immigration. In one poll it was shown that 61 percent of people in America believed that immigrants helped to create jobs (West, 2010)
Research into public perception of immigration found that while those in unskilled positions without attaining a high school diploma, in the US, suffered a negative wage effect from the introduction of migrants into the labour market, those with a high school diploma, or higher, gained. Accordingly, 90% of those with a high school diploma or above saw wage gains from 0.7% to 3.4%, dependent on education, as an impact of immigration (West, 2010)
This has the effect of creating positive externalities in the cost benefit analysis and demonstrating that the cumulative externalities of private and social supply curves creates an overall net benefit to the utilitarian social welfare, as shown below by the downward shift of the supply curve from Sp to Ss.
While the figures on undocumented migration are by their nature ambiguous they can be used to present an impression of how the labour market is increased. From this initial data we have been able to model the increased allocation and demonstrate how the equilibrium point in the economy shifts.
It has been shown that the increased allocation of labour resources through undocumented migration will lead to a reduction in the overall cost of labour as firms reach an equilibrium point based on the supply of the labour with the demand. This could be seen as reducing the potential for native workers to find employment as firms opt for paying undocumented workers below the legal wage and domestic workers potentially face a crowding out effect.
Undocumented workers tend to be employed in low skilled and labour intensive roles. This means that they may help in reducing the costs of production and increasing the output of firms, in turn leading to potentially cheaper prices for consumers and an increase in demand. There is a need, however, for a skilled sector to help dispose of, sell, this additional output to consumers. In order to meet this additional need additional skilled workers, need to be recruited.
This is reflected in the cost benefit analysis which determines that many people see the increase in low skilled labour from immigration as benefitting the labour market and creating a knock on effect of increasing the wages of domestic skilled workers.
An increased allocation in undocumented workers therefore creates employment opportunities in sectors which rely upon trained skilled staff who may command a higher than base salary, leading to a positive impact on the economy. It may also, however, lead to a decrease in available unskilled roles for native workers as firms employ cheaper labour which they are abler to control through the use of asymmetric information.
As has been shown by Keynes however the domestic labour market may be unable to be as flexible in their movement as undocumented migrants. This leads to a false impression that undocumented workers are taking domestic jobs when based on the pure figures without seeing the bigger picture that the roles which they are employed in were vacant due to lack of movement from the domestic labour market to fill them.
The figures demonstrate though that there is still a wide disparity between the number of vacancies in low skilled jobs while employment is at its highest point since 1971. This shows that without an increased allocation of labour through undocumented migration it is unlikely that these positions will be filled. These low skilled jobs are essential to the economy to allow for the growth of further employment opportunities.
By combining these different theories and the way in which they can be used to interpret the data provided it can be seen that undocumented migrants create an overall improvement in the employment market within the domestic economy.
Employment market growth statistics 1971 -2015
Office of National Statistics b, (2016) UK Labour Market: April 2016 [online] Available at https://www.ons.gov.uk/employmentandlabourmarket/peopleinwork/employmentandemployeetypes/bulletins/uklabourmarket/april2016 (accessed 08/05/2016)
Breakdown of sector analysis
Anonymous (2012) Industrial Strategy UK Sector Analysis, Department for Business Innovation and Skills [online] Available at https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/34607/12-1140-industrial-strategy-uk-sector-analysis.pdf (Accessed May 14th 2016)
vacancies — notified by occupation
ONS Crown Copyright Reserved [from Nomis on 14 May 2016]
8 : Process, Plant and Machine Operatives
9 : Elementary Occupations
62 : Leisure and Other Personal Service Occupations
71 : Sales Occupations
72 : Customer Service Occupations
81 : Process, Plant and Machine Operatives
82 : Transport and Mobile Machine Drivers and Operatives
91 : Elementary Trades, Plant and Storage Related Occupations
92 : Elementary Administration and Service Occupations
111 : Corporate Managers And Senior Officials
112 : Production Managers
113 : Functional Managers
114 : Quality And Customer Care Managers
115 : Financial Institution And Office Managers
116 : Managers In Distribution, Storage And Retailing
117 : Protective Service Officers
118 : Health And Social Services Managers
121 : Managers In Farming, Horticulture, Forestry And Fishing
122 : Managers And Proprietors In Hospitality And Leisure Services
123 : Managers And Proprietors In Other Service Industries
211 : Science Professionals
212 : Engineering Professionals
213 : Information And Communication Technology Professionals
221 : Health Professionals
231 : Teaching Professionals
232 : Research Professionals
241 : Legal Professionals
242 : Business And Statistical Professionals
243 : Architects, Town Planners, Surveyors
244 : Public Service Professionals
245 : Librarians And Related Professionals
311 : Science And Engineering Technicians
312 : Draughtspersons And Building Inspectors
313 : IT Service Delivery Occupations
321 : Health Associate Professionals
322 : Therapists
323 : Social Welfare Associate Professionals
331 : Protective Service Occupations
341 : Artistic And Literary Occupations
342 : Design Associate Professionals
343 : Media Associate Professionals
344 : Sports And Fitness Occupations
351 : Transport Associate Professionals
352 : Legal Associate Professionals
353 : Business And Finance Associate Professionals
354 : Sales And Related Associate Professionals
355 : Conservation Associate Professionals
356 : Public Service And Other Associate Professionals
411 : Administrative Occupations: Government And Related Organisations
412 : Administrative Occupations: Finance
413 : Administrative Occupations: Records
414 : Administrative Occupations: Communications
415 : Administrative Occupations: General
421 : Secretarial And Related Occupations
511 : Agricultural Trades
521 : Metal Forming, Welding And Related Trades
522 : Metal Machining, Fitting And Instrument Making Trades
523 : Vehicle Trades
524 : Electrical Trades
531 : Construction Trades
532 : Building Trades
541 : Textiles And Garments Trades
542 : Printing Trades
543 : Food Preparation Trades
549 : Skilled Trades n. e. c.
611 : Healthcare And Related Personal Services
612 : Childcare And Related Personal Services
613 : Animal Care Services
621 : Leisure And Travel Service Occupations
622 : Hairdressers And Related Occupations
623 : Housekeeping Occupations
629 : Personal Services Occupations n. e. c.
711 : Sales Assistants And Retail Cashiers
712 : Sales Related Occupations
721 : Customer Service Occupations
811 : Process Operatives
812 : Plant And Machine Operatives
813 : Assemblers And Routine Operatives
814 : Construction Operatives
821 : Transport Drivers And Operatives
822 : Mobile Machine Drivers And Operatives
911 : Elementary Agricultural Occupations
912 : Elementary Construction Occupations
913 : Elementary Process Plant Occupations
914 : Elementary Goods Storage Occupations
921 : Elementary Administration Occupations
922 : Elementary Personal Services Occupations
923 : Elementary Cleaning Occupations
924 : Elementary Security Occupations
925 : Elementary Sales Occupations
1111 : Senior officials in national government
1112 : Directors and chief executives of major organisations
1113 : Senior officials in local government
1114 : Senior officials of special interest organisations
1121 : Production, works and maintenance managers
1122 : Managers in construction
1123 : Managers in mining and energy
1131 : Financial managers and chartered secretaries
1132 : Marketing and sales managers
1133 : Purchasing managers
1134 : Advertising and public relations managers
1135 : Personnel, training and industrial relations managers
1136 : Information and communication technology managers
1137 : Research and development managers
1141 : Quality assurance managers
1142 : Customer care managers
1151 : Financial institution managers
1152 : Office managers
1161 : Transport and distribution managers
1162 : Storage and warehouse managers
1163 : Retail and wholesale managers
1171 : Officers in armed forces
1172 : Police officers (inspectors and above)
1173 : Senior officers in fire, ambulance, prison and related services
1174 : Security managers
1181 : Hospital and health service managers
1182 : Pharmacy managers
1183 : Healthcare practice managers
1184 : Social services managers
1185 : Residential and day care managers
1211 : Farm managers
1212 : Natural environment and conservation managers
1219 : Managers in animal husbandry, forestry and fishing n.e.c.
1221 : Hotel and accommodation managers
1222 : Conference and exhibition managers
1223 : Restaurant and catering managers
1224 : Publicans and managers of licensed premises
1225 : Leisure and sports managers
1226 : Travel agency managers
1231 : Property, housing and land managers
1232 : Garage managers and proprietors
1233 : Hairdressing and beauty salon managers and proprietors
1234 : Shopkeepers and wholesale/retail dealers
1235 : Recycling and refuse disposal managers
1239 : Managers and proprietors in other services n.e.c.
2111 : Chemists
2112 : Biological scientists and biochemists
2113 : Physicists, geologists and meteorologists
2121 : Civil engineers
2122 : Mechanical engineers
2123 : Electrical engineers
2124 : Electronics engineers
2125 : Chemical engineers
2126 : Design and development engineers
2127 : Production and process engineers
2128 : Planning and quality control engineers
2129 : Engineering professionals n.e.c.
2131 : IT strategy and planning professionals
2132 : Software professionals
2211 : Medical practitioners
2212 : Psychologists
2213 : Pharmacists/pharmacologists
2214 : Ophthalmic opticians
2215 : Dental practitioners
2216 : Veterinarians
2311 : Higher education teaching professionals
2312 : Further education teaching professionals
2313 : Education officers, school inspectors
2314 : Secondary education teaching professionals
2315 : Primary and nursery education teaching professionals
2316 : Special needs education teaching professionals
2317 : Registrars and senior administrators of educational establishments
2319 : Teaching professionals n.e.c.
2321 : Scientific researchers
2322 : Social science researchers
2329 : Researchers n.e.c.
2411 : Solicitors and lawyers, judges and coroners
2419 : Legal professionals n.e.c.
2421 : Chartered and certified accountants
2422 : Management accountants
2423 : Management consultants, actuaries, economists and statisticians
2431 : Architects
2432 : Town planners
2433 : Quantity surveyors
2434 : Chartered surveyors (not quantity surveyors)
2441 : Public service administrative professionals
2442 : Social workers
2443 : Probation officers
ONS (2016) Vacancies notified by output, [online] Available at https://www.nomisweb.co.uk/query/construct/submit.asp?menuopt=201&subcomp= (accessed May 14th 2016)
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