In many of these situations, individual critical thinking goes out the window. The internal biasing behavior of your truth dominates. You stop being able to listen to other perspectives, to process them, to think about them, and to evolve your opinion. Instead of deeply held beliefs, you end up with a shallow and self-justifying perspective that you hold on to endlessly rather than think hard about what is actually going on.
Your Truth vs. The Truth
Brad Feld

In constructivist learning theory, Piaget describes two cognitive processes: assimilation and accommodation. When we assimilate, we fit new experiences into existing mental models. When we accommodate, we revise existing mental models to fit new experiences. The behaviors you describe arise from a failure or unwillingness to accommodate.

I’m a former middle school teacher and I’ve had some success encouraging students to accommodate both inside and outside of the classroom. I hope that, with articles like yours, more people will take a look at this important issue.