It’s an interesting article but fails to consider other psychological factors. Not only was the tribe lifted from poverty by the checks but the casino no doubt strengthened a bond between the group. The casino was owned by the group and a visible status symbol for all to see. The weekly take was the modern buffalo kill. No check out of pitty from DC would ever accomplish a return to dignity.
I live in an area where the average household income is over $200K/yr. Many younger adults have trust funds left by their older family members. They should not have a fear in the world. They should study, invest, volunteer. But guess what, they behave like poor people. They tend to make horrible financial decisions, eat poorly, take drugs and work ineffectively.