Different types of heart attack
The seriousness of heart attack is evaluated by the number of heart muscles that are permanently damaged. The cardiologist will detect the damage by using echocardiography. The treatment provided for heart attack depends upon the type and seriousness of heart attack. The problem for heart attack is that the every second of time you delay could cause permanent damage to the heart muscle, thereby increasing the risk of death.
Some important types of heart attack are discussed below:
STEMI Heart attacks
ST-Segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is a serious type of heart attack in which a large part of heart muscle can’t receive sufficient amount of blood due to blocks in coronary arteries. This type of heart attack requires immediate emergency treatments. The revascularization is obtained with usage of drugs (thrombolytics) that are given intravenously, or mechanically with angioplasty
NSTEMI Heart attacks
A nonST-Segment elevation myocardial infarction is another type of heart attack that doesn’t bring high damage to the patient’s heart. Treatments usually adopted are medications, angioplasty, and cardiac bypass graft surgery.
Coronary artery spasm
Coronary artery spasm is a condition in which the blood flow through the artery is restricted due to its tight walls causing chest pain or even heart attack. This coronary artery spasm can’t be detected using imaging test (angiogram) which is performed to detect the blockage for arteries. Nitrates and calcium channel blockers are generally suggested medications.
Demand Ischemia, another type of heart attack occurs due to the unavailability of oxygen. This unavailability is not because of blockages in arteries. Demand ischemia occurs in patients with infections, anemia, or tachyarrhythmias because they have faster abnormal heart rates. Hence, the patient’s heart needs more oxygen than available in body’s supply. Demand Ischemia can be determined by blood test.
A cardiac arrest can occur for other reason along with blockages in the artery. The other reasons are disturbances in electrolytes such as low or high potassium or low magnesium, congenital abnormalities, or poor pumping function of the heart. Treatments given includes cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), defibrillation and hypothermia