Clear: The true color of C-60

For a while now I’ve been following the buzz around a product called Carbon 60, or just C-60. There are some amazing testimonials about the product.

So I decided to do some research. What I found was very interesting and not at all what I expected.

C-60 molecules are called Buckeyballs!

For starters, for the better part of two decades now, a purple color has been the standard for determining if a product contains C-60. A purple color!

C-60 turns purple when mixed with Olive oil. Just about everybody who manufactures this stuff makes that claim.

As it turns out, that purple color comes from residual toluene left over from the manufacturing process.

Yeah, you read that right. RESIDUAL TOLUENE! Or, residual amounts of other solvents such as benzene or xylene.

So what color is untainted C-60?

Clear!

So how do we know this to be true? Scientists proved it. Back in 2008.

Working at the highly-regarded St. Petersburg State University in St. Petersburg, Russia, a team of scientists lead by K. N. Semenov discovered some amazing things.

Before we delve into the work done by Dr. Semenov’s team, though, let’s take a look at the credibility of the school itself.

St. Petersburg State University is the oldest and one of the largest universities in Russia. It was founded while the USA was at least 50 years from contemplating its independence from Britain. The school was founded in 1724 by Peter the Great. From its inception, the university has focused on research in science, engineering and humanities. It is made up of 24 specialized faculties and institutes, including the Academic Gymnasium, the Medical College, the College of Physical culture and Sports, Economics and Technology.

Some of the university’s more acclaimed alumni include: Russian president Vladimir Putin and former Russian president and current Prime Minister, Dimitry Medvedev, both of whom studied law at the university; Lithuania’s president Dalia Grybauskaitė and renowned mathematician Mikhail Gromov.

The University has produced eight Nobel Prize winners: Ivan Pavlov (Physiology and Medicine, 1904), Ilya Mechnikov (Physiology and Medicine, 1908), Nikolay Semyonov (Chemistry, 1956), Lev Landau (Physics, 1962), Aleksandr Prokhorov (Physics, 1964), Wassily Leontief (Economics, 1973), Leonid Kantorovich (Economics, 1975) and Joseph Brodsky (Literature, 1987).

Grigori Perelman and Stanislav Smirnov are two graduates awarded the Fields medal, the Nobel Prize for math bestowed just once every four years and only to those under 40. American novelist Ayn Rand attended the university from 1920 to 1924, graduating with honors in history.

In addition, Saint Petersburg State University is included in all ratings and lists of the best universities in the world.

It seems, then, the school has some chops.

So what did the scientists actually discover? Detailed in their paper, “Solubility of Light Fullerenes in Vegetable Oils” Dr. Semenov and his team outline how they came to discover the true color of C-60 and from where the purple color actually derives.

Dr. Semenov writes:

“The solubility of С60 has been measured in 150 solvents . . .

“The solubility of С60 fullerene has been studied in the following solvents: hexane, tetralin, carbon disulfide, perchloromethane, and butylamine; in some aromatic solvents: benzene, toluene, o-xylene, o-di chlorobenzene, diphenyl acetone, thiophene, tetrahydrothiophene, tetrahydrofuran, higher isomeric carboxylic acids, monobasic carboxylic acids of a normal structure, and olive-kernel oil.”

He goes on to write . . .

“In the present work we studied the solubility of light fullerenes, individual С60 and С70, and also standard fullerene mixtures (С60 65, С70 34, and С76–90 1 wt %) in liquid natural vegetable oils (unrefined and refined sunflower, corn, olive, linen, apricot, grape, cedar, and walnut) in the temperature range 0–80°С.” That’s 32°F to 176°F.

Here’s the payoff:

“The study of the solubility of light fullerenes in liquid natural vegetable oils is an actual problem for several reasons. Fullerenes are rather readily soluble in these natural solvents in the specified temperature range — from tenths up to unities of grams of fullerenes per a liter of a solution (Table 2). Fullerenes and natural vegetable oils form absolutely transparent true solutions stable in time. Such solutions are completely harmless and compatible with human and animal organisms when they are prepared directly at the extraction of a fullerenes mixture from fullerene soot by natural vegetable oils, i.e. when they practically do not contain any harmful admixtures.”

Absolutely transparent true solutions stable in time!

And did you catch this? “. . . are completely harmless and compatible with human and animal organisms when prepared directly at the extraction . . . “

That’s pretty convincing.

But wait, there’s more.

The report goes on to say this:

“Standard fullerenes obtained as a rule from solutions in aromatic solvents (toluene, xylenes, dichlorobenzenes, etc.) inevitably contain remains of these solvents. Even after an hours-long high temperature (200–250°С) [or 392–482°F] drying in sufficiently high vacuum (0.01 mm Hg) the remaining content of solvents is from thousandth up to hundredth parts of weight %. The alternative complete removal of admixed solvents can be reached probably only by a vacuum high-temperature sublimation of fullerene at very low residual pressures (<10–5 mm Hg). The experiment shows that such process is rather expensive and labor consuming, and, therefore, for example, the price for so-called “sublimated fullerene С60” free from admixed solvents is 2–4 times higher than the price for “ordinary” fullerene С60 obtained by the standard procedure of drying in a vacuum box.”

Yowsa! Inevitably contain remains of these solvents. If that’s correct, and there is no reason to doubt it, then every dose of C-60 from manufacturers who use solvents such as toluene, benzene and xylene has been tainted. Only C-60 from non-solvent manufacturers is pure.

On the highly-regarded board LongeCity, there are many posts regarding the color of C-60. Most disregard the purple color and indicate a darker maroon is C-60’s true color.

Writing in May, 2015, tunt01 posted:

“Adding another datapoint:

· Ordered c60oo from www.carbon60OliveOil.com (4/6/2015)

· Arrived approx. (4/10/2015)

· Color upon arrival = purple (4/10/2015)

· One month later color = light brown/brown (5/8/2015)

It may be that I am totally naive, but I decided to throw it out.”

Another post, this one from turnbuckle in November, 2014 said:

“The color tends to go from red to brown with age. I got the best purple/red color in almond oil, but even that one turned brown over a period of months. An exception was squalane, which showed no color at all and never changed in spite of dissolving a good deal of C60. Squalane probably didn’t react at all, and from that I suspect that as the number of multiple adducts increases, each with its own color, the overall color is muddied.”

Now let’s turn to the highly-regarded Baati study, the one that said C-60 doubled the lifespan in rats. You can read the study for yourself at this link (http://www.medicinabiomolecular.com.br/biblioteca/pdfs/Biomolecular/mb-0916.pdf)

The researchers used C-60 provided by a U.S. company.

And so how did the Baati study researchers know they were dealing with C-60? They spell it out in the early part of the report: “It is well known that C60 and derivatives are prone to aggregate even in their best solvents [37]. The C60-olive oil solution used in this study can be considered as free of C60 aggregates because: 1 e its colour is purple that is characteristic of C60 solutions . . . “

The study itself has come under scrutiny in the scientific community. Writing in the journal, New Scientist, Andy Coghlan cites several inconsistencies in the study. For starters, he notes the researchers could not find any chemical traces of buckyballs that had reacted with elements inside the rats.

Coghlan quotes researcher Aubrey de Grey, “This paper has been the talk of the town for a few days, but its credibility is very low, with crazy numbers and various inconsistencies.”

De Grey is a gerontologist and chief science officer of the SENS Foundation in Cambridge, UK, which is dedicated to the study of rejuvenation. De Grey also points out that the rats given olive oil alone also seemed to live longer than expected, suggesting that whatever effect is being seen is not caused by the buckyballs alone.

Now, let’s get back to the Russians.

The research conducted by Dr. Semenov showed “Fullerene solutions in oil show expressed anti-bactericidal and antioxidant properties, absorb free radicals from condensed phases, in which they are present, ion radicals, and also photons in the UV spectral range [24, 25] that undoubtedly can be used in practice.”

Furthermore, “the solubility increases with increasing temperature from 0 up to 80°С [32–176°F] for both fullerenes С60 and С70 in all natural oils (by a factor of 2–3 for the С60 fullerene.”

The C60 Dr. Semenov procured came from Innovations of Leningrad Institutes, founded in 1989. Since 2002, ILIP has been working on the systemic development of carbon nanotechnology. Their unique teams of scientists, designers, analysts and managers have created highly effective manufacturing technologies for a broad range of carbon nanoclusters, as well as technologies for their application. Сurrently, ILIP CJSC is mainly working on developing carbon nanotechnology. Work began in 2002, when the company was commissioned by an Italian company Job Joint s.r.l. to design, manufacture and supply equipment for fullerene C60 producing with an intellectual property package to Italy. The company owns 14 patents in regard to the production of nanocarbon materials. The company states their C60 is 99.9% pure.

So, the Russian study proved C-60 is clear when it isn’t carrying residual solvents such as toluene. Many manufacturers say their products are “solvent free” but are processed using solvents then vacuum dried to remove solvent residue. But, as the Russian study pointed out, it is nearly impossible to remove all of the solvent residue.

I’ve looked around and I can only find one U.S. manufacturer who doesn’t use solvents in the making of C-60. That company is Greska’s Carbon 60 Organic Sunflower Oil.

Here’s something to ponder. Why would you want to take a chance putting ANY solvents, especially ones as harmful as toluene, benzene or xylene into your body?

If you need a pure C-60 product, then its probably best to go with Greska’s. That’s what I’m going to go with. I’ll keep you posted as to my progress.

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