Using precompiled smart contracts is a necessary primitives for building a compatible EVM blockchain. At Edgeware, we are aiming to integrate all currently integrated precompiled contracts that exist on Ethereum and then more, so that developers have a wide range of useful building blocks for their DApps.

In this post, we’ll go over how:

  • Substrate handles precompiled contracts
  • Resolving precompiled contracts happens
  • Testing precompiled contracts happens

Substrate EVM

The Substrate EVM is implemented as a runtime module, known in Substrate as a pallet. The trait implementation of the EVM will tell us more about how it works.

/// EVM module trait
pub trait…

Follow the discussion at https://commonwealth.im/edgeware/proposal/discussion/150-identity-for-a-multichain-ecosystem!

For most blockchain applications besides wallets, there is a single blockchain that runs that application. Be it Aragon on Ethereum or Counterparty on Bitcoin, many protocols and dApps are mono-chain apps. They rely on the underlying public key system as the identity system. The key question we ask: is there a better way to handle identities?

This question presents a new set of user experience challenges. In a multi-chain world, will users even want to maintain multiple private key pairs when they are using an arbitrary web dApplication? I will address this question negatively first…


When you dive into the mechanics of blockchain protocols, hoping to understand the inner workings of this complex system, you somehow find yourself researching an even broader set of topics. Topics ranging from common resource pools to the dynamics of multi-agent systems are only a few that you may stumble upon, depending on the angle of your approach.

The economic modeling of blockchains is undeniably an interesting topic. At a high level, the blockchain is a multi-agent, economic network that is constantly changing. Parameters for the block-size, difficulty, and cost of transacting are constantly evolving through obscure voting and aggregation…


Photo by Joakim Honkasalo on Unsplash

Note: This article leads up to the design and WIP implementation of an anonymous voting protocol on Ethereum with zero-knowledge proofs for preserving anonymity.

The history of anonymous voting dates back thousands of years to the ancient Greeks and Romans. In their cultures, anonymous voting was used to exile individuals perceived as threats and also for general electoral matters. Preserving anonymity was and is important in past and present cultures. Anonymity allows individuals to make unprejudiced decisions on the basis that these decisions cannot come back to haunt the voter. In modern society, and more specifically modern democracies/republics, most public…


Imagine for a moment that we analyze Bitcoin as a flow network, where the transaction endpoints, i.e. the users/accounts, are nodes in our graph. The flow commodity is money. The efficiency of the network is a mixture of how “well” the network routes money. This could be defined as a ratio of the routed flow amount versus the fees taken for each edge or transaction in the network or some other combination — maybe how much bandwidth a node offers versus its available capacity. …


This will be the final part of my mini-series on Proof of Work based cryptocurrency/blockchain/blockDAG consensus protocols though there will certainly be more to come. As a recap, we started by analyzing Bitcoin’s longest chain rule and GHOST’s heaviest subtree rule. These protocols built tree structures by design and differed primarily in fork selection. The first blockDAG protocol that we looked at, SPECTRE, abstracts away from this to build a directed acyclic graph structure over blocks. It provides separate mechanisms for mining and consensus on valid transactions, which allows the end user an extra dosage of freedom in the transactions…


In the previous post, we discussed the topological foundations of two consensus protocols: Bitcoin’s longest chain rule and the GHOST protocol (heaviest subtree rule). In this post we will analyze the DAG protocol SPECTRE.

We saw firsthand the benefits of intelligently designing a blockchain consensus protocol: the GHOST protocol enjoys more security and scalability by how it chooses to resolve forks than Bitcoin and longest chain proof of work consensus protocols. Thus, the design of new consensus variants present interesting research opportunities for blockchain research. …


The shape and topology of blockchain (or DAG) based consensus protocols is inherent to future development and research of scalable cryptocurrencies. To that end, it is useful to classify and remark upon how each differs and provide improvements or drawbacks in relation to one another. I also think it’s important to get these ideas out in the open to help educate people who are interested in cryptocurrency & decentralized technology research.

In this first section we will analyze 2 consensus mechanisms, that of Bitcoin and protocols adhering to similar constructions and the GHOST protocol.

As a primer for those interested…


We live in a world where people get paid to spread truths and lies. We’ve at least heard of the term propaganda, and by now, we’ve all been exposed to propagandist regimes: the most obvious example stems from our global political climate, since by nature, politicians love spreading lies. The duality between truth and lies and right and wrong is at the heart of politics and information. And it’s this duality that incentivizes powerful people to uphold or destroy the values of society that preserve truthfulness. …


We have today, the ability to purchase nearly infinite amounts of computers and storage “in the cloud”. We can even amass fleets of human beings to answer questions, CAPTCHAs, surveys, and probably whatever you’re thinking right now if Google couldn’t do that already. The Internet has enabled the commoditization of a number of new services both human and machine based. And it has diminished the geographic and financial restrictions of acquiring the infrastructure needed to use and benefit from these services. Each of these services today, however, is largely centralized in the creation, distribution, and pricing of such offerings. The…

Drew Stone

Tech @ Edgeware | CTO @ Commonwealth Labs | NETS @ UPENN

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