In Kraut’s other previous work, his team found that passive consumption led to the opposite effect. In effect, social media, when direct and personal, contributed to well-being. When broadcast, it didn’t. “If you spend more time watching YouTube videos, ties with significant others, family, etc., decline,” says Kraut.
… Instead, the impact depends on who you’re communicating with and the nature of that communication. Closer ties with people, more substantive communication and more tailored messages — information directly meant for you as opposed to broadcast to all friends — is associated with small improvements in well-being, according to a study his group published in 2016.