Part of this article has been published in SIGBPS 2018 Workshop on
Blockchain and Smart Contract
. Read the full paper here.

In the previous article, I examined the fundamental value of the tokens in a Token-curated Registry (TCR) by considering the ecosystem of the registry. One critical factor that determines the token value is whether the community can maintain the quality of the entries through challenging and voting. This problem is discussed in the original TCR whitepaper by Mike Goldin, in which the quality will be maintained due to the incentive from token holders: A candidate will not propose a…

Token-curated Registry (TCR) has become a hot topic in the blockchain community. TCR faciliates data curation in a particular theme by a voting mechanism that utilizes cryptocurrency tokens. Traditionally, a domain-specific database is maintained by a centralized entity such as Yelp, or by an open collaboration platform like Wikipedia. Yet, it is not uncommon to see fraudulent information appears in these platforms [1]. TCR aims to solve the inefficiency of these existing solutions by introducing an explicit monetary cost and a challenge mechanism in data entry operations, which increases the cost of misrepresenting the data significantly.

While TCR is believed…

By harrier

This article is a write-up on the Foreshadow attack from the Foreshadow research team and Intel. If there are any mistakes or clarification, please contact me at


Foreshadow (CVE-2018–3615), an Intel SGX hardware level side-channel attack, is recently being responsibly disclosed by two international research teams. It was referred by Intel as L1 Terminal Fault (L1TF) and have multiple variants for attacking OS kernel (CVE-2018–3620) and virtual machines (CVE-2018–3646).

Security vulnerabilities mostly focus on software level security, for example on memory safeness (such as stack and heap exploits), protocols (such as misuse / incorrect implementation of cryptographic…

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